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Garrett M. Pool, Ryne A. Didier, Dianna Bardo, Nathan R. Selden and Anna A. Kuang


The aim of this study was to develop soft-tissue and bony anthropometric orbital measurements in a normal pediatric population based upon CT scans.


This was a retrospective stratified study of children with ages ranging from birth to 36 months. Head CT images for 204 children were available and obtained with 0.625–1-mm slice widths. Soft-tissue and bone windows were reviewed. Images were oriented in the Frankfort horizontal plane, and the intercanthal (IC), bony interorbital (IO), and bony lateral orbital (LO) distances were measured. Age group stratifications were 0–3, > 3–6, > 6–9, > 9–12, > 12–18, > 18–24, > 24–30, and > 30–36 months. Patients with known syndromes or craniofacial abnormalities were excluded. Statistical analysis included the mean, SD, SEM, 95% CI, and an evaluation of IO:LO ratio.


There was an average of 25.5 patients in each age group (range 25–27 patients). All soft-tissue and bony measurements consistently showed rapid increase from 0–6 months of age, which tapered after age > 12 months. The mean IC, bony IO, and bony LO distances started at 22.22 ± 1.13 mm, 14.16 ± 0.74 mm, and 65.56 ± 1.76 mm, and at 12 months were 27.74 ± 1.01 mm, 16.21 ± 0.75 mm, and 77.98 ± 1.57 mm, respectively. The bony LO position was equivalent to the lateral canthal position and measurements. The IC distance was approximately one-third the lateral canthal distance for all age groups.


This study established and reported normal anthropometric orbital measurements in a pediatric population using fine-cut craniofacial CT. These measurements are essential when evaluating children with craniofacial anomalies.

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Justin S. Cetas, Morad Nasseri, Targol Saedi, Anna A. Kuang and Nathan R. Selden


Delayed intracranial hypertension may occur after cranial vault remodeling for synostosis and may result in visual loss and developmental delay. Delayed intracranial hypertension is relatively common in children with syndromic, multisuture synostosis, but the incidence is poorly defined in children with single-suture nonsyndromic synostosis. This study evaluates the frequency of reoperation for delayed intracranial hypertension after single-suture synostosis repair.


Patients who had undergone cranial vault remodeling for nonsyndromic single-suture synostosis and were treated at a single tertiary pediatric hospital between July 2000 and December 2010 were analyzed for the occurrence of delayed intracranial hypertension and reoperation for cranial vault remodeling.


Eighty-one patients with clinical follow-up of at least 3 years were analyzed from a total of 156 consecutive patients. The average patient age at the initial operation was 9.1 months. Five (6.2%) of 81 patients presented with delayed clinical and ophthalmological signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension following initial cranial vault reconstruction, confirmed indirectly in each case by CT findings and directly by intracranial pressure monitoring. These 5 patients underwent repeat cranial vault reconstruction.


Calvarial growth restriction and intracranial hypertension occur sporadically following primary cranial vault reconstruction for single-suture nonsyndromic cranial synostosis. In this series, delayed intracranial hypertension occurred only in male patients who underwent primary repair of isolated sagittal synostoses at an age less than or equal to 5 months.