Nicholas Theodore, Paul M. Arnold, and Ankit I. Mehta
Ryan G. Chiu, Angelica M. Fuentes, and Ankit I. Mehta
Several studies have indicated that racial disparities may exist in the management and outcomes of acute trauma care. One segment of trauma care that has not been as extensively investigated, however, is that of cranial trauma care. The goal of this study was to determine whether significant differences exist among racial and ethnic groups in various measures of inpatient management and outcomes after gunshot wounds to the head (GWH).
In this study, the authors used the Nationwide (National) Inpatient Sample (NIS) to investigate all-cause mortality, receipt of surgery, days from admission to initial intervention, discharge disposition, length of hospital stay, and total hospital charges of those with GWH from 2012 to 2016. A 1:1 propensity score–matched analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of race on these endpoints, while controlling for baseline demographics and comorbidities.
A total of 333 patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria: 148 (44.44%) white/Caucasian, 123 (36.94%) black/African American, 54 (16.22%) Hispanic/Latinx, and 8 (2.40%) Asian. African American patients were sent to immediate care and rehabilitation significantly less often than Caucasian patients (RR 0.17 [95% CI 0.04–0.71]). There were no significant differences in mortality, length of stay, rates of surgical intervention, or total hospital charges among any of the racial groups.
The authors’ findings suggest that racial disparities in inpatient cranial trauma care and outcomes may not be as prevalent as previously thought. In fact, the disparities seen were only in disposition. More research is needed to further elucidate and address disparities within this population, particularly those that may exist prior to, and after, hospitalization.
Abhinav K. Reddy, James S. Ryoo, Steven Denyer, Laura S. McGuire, and Ankit I. Mehta
The aim of this study was to illustrate the demographic characteristics of meningioma patients and observe the effect of adjuvant radiation therapy on survival by using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. More specifically, the authors aimed to answer the question of whether adjuvant radiotherapy following resection of atypical meningioma confers a cause-specific survival benefit. Additionally, they attempted to add to previous characterizations of the epidemiology of primary meningiomas and assess the effectiveness of the standard of care for benign and anaplastic meningiomas. They also sought to characterize the efficacy of various treatment options in atypical and anaplastic meningiomas separately since nearly all other analyses have grouped these two together despite varying treatment regimens for these behavior categories.
SEER data from 1973 to 2015 were queried using appropriate ICD-O-3 codes for benign, atypical, and anaplastic meningiomas. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and treatment choices were analyzed. The effects of treatment were examined using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.
A total of 57,998 patients were included in the analysis of demographic, meningioma, and treatment characteristics. Among this population, cases of unspecified WHO tumor grade were excluded in the multivariate analysis, leaving a total of 12,931 patients to examine outcomes among treatment paradigms. In benign meningiomas, gross-total resection (HR 0.289, p = 0.013) imparted a significant cause-specific survival benefit over no treatment. In anaplastic meningioma cases, adjuvant radiotherapy imparted a significant survival benefit following both subtotal (HR 0.089, p = 0.018) and gross-total (HR 0.162, p = 0.002) resection as compared to gross-total resection alone. In atypical tumors, gross-total resection plus radiotherapy did not significantly change the hazard risk (HR 1.353, p = 0.628) compared to gross-total resection alone. Similarly, it was found that adjuvant radiation did not significantly benefit survival after a subtotal resection (HR 1.440, p = 0.644).
The results of this study demonstrate that the role of adjuvant radiotherapy, especially after the resection of atypical meningioma, remains somewhat unclear. Thus, given these results, prospective randomized clinical studies are warranted to provide clear information on the effects of adjuvant radiation in meningioma treatment.
Ryan G. Chiu, Blake E. Murphy, David M. Rosenberg, Amy Q. Zhu, and Ankit I. Mehta
Much of the current discourse surrounding healthcare reform in the United States revolves around the role of the profit motive in medical care. However, there currently exists a paucity of literature evaluating the effect of for-profit hospital ownership status on neurological and neurosurgical care. The purpose of this study was to compare inpatient mortality, operation rates, length of stay, and hospital charges between private nonprofit and for-profit hospitals in the treatment of intracranial hemorrhage.
This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. Primary outcomes, including all-cause inpatient mortality, operative status, patient disposition, hospital length of stay, total hospital charges, and per-day hospital charges, were assessed for patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of intracranial (epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, or intraparenchymal) hemorrhage, while controlling for baseline demographics, comorbidities, and interhospital differences via propensity score matching. Subgroup analyses by hemorrhage type were then performed, using the same methodology.
Of 155,977 unique hospital discharges included in this study, 133,518 originated from private nonprofit hospitals while the remaining 22,459 were from for-profit hospitals. After propensity score matching, mortality rates were higher in for-profit centers, at 14.50%, compared with 13.31% at nonprofit hospitals (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00–1.18; p = 0.040). Surgical operation rates were also similar (25.38% vs 24.42%; RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.91–1.02; p = 0.181). Of note, nonprofit hospitals appeared to be more intensive, with intracranial pressure monitor placement occurring in 2.13% of patients compared with 1.47% in for-profit centers (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54–0.88; p < 0.001). Discharge disposition was also similar, except for higher rates of absconding at for-profit hospitals (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.12–2.27; p = 0.018). Length of stay was greater among for-profit hospitals (mean ± SD: 7.46 ± 11.91 vs 6.50 ± 8.74 days, p < 0.001), as were total hospital charges ($141,141.40 ± $218,364.40 vs $84,863.54 ± $136,874.71 [USD], p < 0.001). These findings remained similar even after segregating patients by subgroup analysis by hemorrhage type.
For-profit hospitals are associated with higher inpatient mortality, lengths of stay, and hospital charges compared with their nonprofit counterparts.
Matthew K. Tobin, Joseph R. Geraghty, Herbert H. Engelhard, Andreas A. Linninger, and Ankit I. Mehta
Intramedullary spinal cord tumors have low incidence rates but are associated with difficult treatment options. The majority of patients with these tumors can be initially treated with an attempted resection. Unfortunately, those patients who cannot undergo gross-total resection or have subtotal resection are left with few treatment options, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. These adjuvant treatments, however, are associated with the potential for significant adverse side effects and still leave patients with a poor prognosis. To successfully manage these patients and improve both their quality of life and prognosis, novel treatment options must be developed to supplement subtotal resection. New research is underway investigating alternative therapeutic approaches for these patients, including directed, localized drug delivery and nanomedicine techniques. These and other future investigations will hopefully lead to promising new therapies for these devastating diseases.
Bhargav Desai, Ying Hsu, Benjamin Schneller, Jonathan G. Hobbs, Ankit I. Mehta, and Andreas Linninger
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels play an important role in brain water homeostasis. Water transport across plasma membranes has a critical role in brain water exchange of the normal and the diseased brain. AQP4 channels are implicated in the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus, a disease of water imbalance that leads to CSF accumulation in the ventricular system. Many molecular aspects of fluid exchange during hydrocephalus have yet to be firmly elucidated, but review of the literature suggests that modulation of AQP4 channel activity is a potentially attractive future pharmaceutical therapy. Drug therapy targeting AQP channels may enable control over water exchange to remove excess CSF through a molecular intervention instead of by mechanical shunting. This article is a review of a vast body of literature on the current understanding of AQP4 channels in relation to hydrocephalus, details regarding molecular aspects of AQP4 channels, possible drug development strategies, and limitations. Advances in medical imaging and computational modeling of CSF dynamics in the setting of hydrocephalus are summarized. Algorithmic developments in computational modeling continue to deepen the understanding of the hydrocephalus disease process and display promising potential benefit as a tool for physicians to evaluate patients with hydrocephalus.
Neha Siddiqui, Ryan G. Chiu, Ravi S. Nunna, Georgia Glastris, and Ankit I. Mehta
The US FDA uses evidence from clinical trials in its determination of safety and utility. However, these trials have often suffered from limited external validity and generalizability due to unrepresentative study populations with respect to clinical patient demographics. Section 907 of the FDA Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) of 2012 attempted to address this issue by mandating the reporting of certain study demographics in new device applications. However, no study has been performed on its effectiveness in the participant diversity of neurosurgical device trials.
The FDA premarket approval (PMA) online database was queried for all original neurosurgical device submissions from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2019. Endpoints of the study included racial and gender demographics of reported effectiveness trials, which were summated for each submission. Chi-square tests were performed on both endpoints for before and after years of FDASIA passage and implementation.
A total of 33 device approvals were analyzed, with 14 occurring before SIA implementation and 19 after. Most trials (96.97%) reported gender to the FDA, while 66.67% reported race and 63.64% reported ethnicity. Gender breakdown did not change significantly post-SIA (53.30% female, p = 0.884). Racial breakdown was significantly different from the 2010 US Census for all races (p < 0.001) both pre- and post-SIA. Only Native American race was significantly different in terms of representation post-SIA, increasing from 0% to 0.63% (p = 0.0187). There was no significant change in ethnicity.
The FDASIA, as currently written, does not appear to have had a significant impact on the racial or gender diversity of neurosurgical device clinical trial populations. This may be due to the noncompulsory nature of its guidance, or a lack of more stringent regulation on the composition of clinical trials themselves.
Syed I. Khalid, Cody Eldridge, Ravinderjit Singh, Sai Chilakapati, Kyle B. Thomson, Rachyl M. Shanker, Ankit I. Mehta, and Owoicho Adogwa
Methods of reducing complications in individuals electing to undergo anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) rely upon understanding at-risk patient populations, among other factors. This study aims to investigate the interplay between social determinants of health (SDOH) and postoperative complication rates, length of stay, revision surgery, and rates of postoperative readmission at 30 and 90 days in individuals electing to have single-level ACDF.
Using MARINER30, a database that contains claims information from all payers, patients were identified who underwent single-level ACDF between 2010 and 2019. Identification of patients experiencing disparities in 1 of 6 categories of SDOH was completed using ICD-9 and ICD-10 (International Classifications of Diseases, Ninth and Tenth Revisions) codes. The population was propensity matched into 2 cohorts based on comorbidity status: those with SDOH versus those without.
A total of 10,030 patients were analyzed; there were 5015 (50.0%) in each cohort. The rates of any postoperative complication (12.0% vs 4.6%, p < 0.001); pseudarthrosis (3.4% vs 2.6%, p = 0.017); instrumentation removal (1.8% vs 1.2%, p = 0.033); length of stay (2.54 ± 5.9 days vs 2.08 ± 5.07 days, p < 0.001 [mean ± SD]); and revision surgery (9.7% vs 4.2%, p < 0.001) were higher in the SDOH group compared to patients without SDOH, respectively. Patients with any SDOH had higher odds of perioperative complications (OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.43–3.33), pseudarthrosis (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.06–1.68), revision surgery (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.04–2.85), and instrumentation removal (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.04–2.00).
In patients who underwent single-level ACDF, there is an association between SDOH and higher complication rates, longer stay, increased need for instrumentation removal, and likelihood of revision surgery.
Austin K. Mattox, Ankit I. Mehta, Peter M. Grossi, Thomas J. Cummings, and D. Cory Adamson
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon, locally aggressive, malignant cutaneous tumor that sparingly presents on the scalp. Dermatofibrosarcomas often result from the formation of a fusion oncogene on translocated or supernumerary ring chromosomes 17 and 22, causing the overexpression of PDGFRβ driven by the COL1A1 promoter. Because of uncertainty surrounding appropriate treatment of aggressive scalp DFSP, the authors performed an extensive review of the available data from a MEDLINE (Ovid) search to describe the clinical presentation and treatment options for this rare tumor. Their search identified 39 different cases, including the illustrative case presented in this study.
Adjuvant therapy for this malignant lesion is not universally established in the literature. In the present case, the authors successfully treated a locally invasive scalp DFSP with presurgical therapy that specifically inhibited the PDGFβ receptor. Imatinib significantly shrank the DFSP tumor mass, reduced hypervascularity, reduced metabolic activity on PET scanning, and permitted a safe gross-total resection. Although wide excision and Mohs micrographic surgery remain the standard surgical treatments for DFSP, the authors illustrate that presurgical chemotherapeutic treatment by imatinib provides a critical adjunct to traditional therapy.
Mari Kusumi, Takanori Fukushima, Ankit I. Mehta, Hamidreza Aliabadi, Yoichi Nonaka, Allan H. Friedman, and Kiyotaka Fujii
The combined petrosal approach is a suitable technique for the resection of medium-to-large petroclival meningiomas (PCMs). Multiple technical modifications have been reported to increase the surgical corridor, including the method of dural and tentorial opening. The authors describe their method of dural opening and tentorial resection, and detail the microanatomy related to their technique to clarify pitfalls and effects.
The relationship of temporal bridging veins and cranial nerves (CNs) around the tentorial resection area was examined during the combined petrosal approach in 20 cadaveric specimens. The authors also reviewed their 23 consecutive clinical cases treated using this technique between 2002 and 2010, focusing on the effects and risks of the procedure.
In the authors' method, the tentorial resection extends from 5 to 10 mm anterior to the junction of the sigmoid sinus and the superior petrosal sinus (“sinodural point”) to the trigeminal fibrous ring and the dural sleeve of CN IV. Temporal bridging veins enter the transverse sinus no more than 5 mm anterior to the sinodural point. The CN IV should be freed from its tentorial dural sleeve while avoiding disruption of the posterior cavernous sinus. The clinical data demonstrate a total resection rate of 78.3%, intraoperative estimated blood loss < 400 ml at a rate of 80.9%, and a venous congestion rate of 0%.
Understanding the anatomical relationship between the tentorium and temporal bridging veins and CNs IV–VI allows neurosurgeons the ability to develop a combined petrosal approach to PCMs that will effectively supply a wide operative corridor after resecting the tentorium, while significantly devascularizing tumors.