The diagnostic workup and surgical therapy for peripheral nerve tumors and tumorlike lesions are challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging is the standard diagnostic tool in the preoperative workup. However, even with advanced pulse sequences such as diffusion tensor imaging for MR neurography, the ability to differentiate tumor entities based on histological features remains limited. In particular, rare tumor entities different from schwannomas and neurofibromas are difficult to anticipate before surgical exploration and histological confirmation. High-resolution ultrasound (HRU) has become another important tool in the preoperative evaluation of peripheral nerves. Ongoing software and technical developments with transducers of up to 17–18 MHz enable high spatial resolution with tissue-differentiating properties. Unfortunately, high-frequency ultrasound provides low tissue penetration. The authors developed a setting in which intraoperative HRU was used and in which the direct sterile contact between the ultrasound transducer and the surgically exposed nerve pathology was enabled to increase structural resolution and contrast. In a case-guided fashion, the authors report the sonographic characteristics of rare tumor entities shown by intraoperative HRU and contrast-enhanced ultrasound.
Maria Teresa Pedro, Gregor Antoniadis, Angelika Scheuerle, Mirko Pham, Christian Rainer Wirtz and Ralph W. Koenig
Jan Coburger, Jens Engelke, Angelika Scheuerle, Dietmar R. Thal, Michal Hlavac, Christian Rainer Wirtz and Ralph König
High-grade gliomas (HGGs) and metastasis (MET) are the most common intracranial lesions in neurosurgical routine. Both of them show an invasive growth pattern extending into neural tissue beyond the margins of contrast enhancement on MRI. These “undetected” areas might be the origin of early tumor recurrence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence provides an additional benefit in detection of invasive tumor compared with intraoperative MRI (iMRI).
The authors prospectively enrolled 45 patients harboring contrast-enhancing lesions, in whom gross-total resection was intended. All patients had surgery in which iMRI and 5-ALA–guided resection were used following a specific protocol. First, a typical white light tumor resection was performed. Then, spatial location of residual fluorescence was marked. After that, an iMRI was performed and residual uptake of contrast was marked. Navigated biopsy samples were taken from all marked areas and from additional sites according to the surgeon's judgment. Cross tables and receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated, assessing performance of the imaging methods for tumor detection alone and for combined detection of infiltration zone and solid tumor (pathological tissue). Also, correlations of histopathological findings with imaging results were tested using Spearman rho.
Thirty-four patients with HGGs and 11 with METs were enrolled. Three patients harboring a MET showed no 5-ALA enhancement and were excluded; 127 histopathological samples were harvested in the remaining patients. In HGG, sensitivity for tumor detection was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in 5-ALA (0.85) than in iMRI (0.41). Specificity was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in 5-ALA (0.43) than in iMRI (0.70). For detection of pathological tissue, 5-ALA significantly exceeded iMRI in specificity (0.80 vs 0.60) and sensitivity (0.91 vs 0.66) (p < 0.001). Imaging results of iMRI and 5-ALA did not correlate significantly; only 5-ALA showed a significant correlation with final histopathological diagnosis of the specimen and with typical histopathological features of HGGs. In METs, sensitivity and specificity for tumor detection were equal in 5-ALA and iMRI. Both techniques showed high values for sensitivity (0.75) and specificity (0.80). The odds ratio for detection of tumor tissue was 12 for both techniques. Concerning pathological tissue, no statistically significant difference was found either. Imaging results of iMRI and 5-ALA correlated significantly (p < 0.022), as with final histopathological diagnosis in METs.
In METs, due to the rate of nonenhancing lesions, the authors found no additional benefit of 5-ALA compared with iMRI. In HGG, imaging results of 5-ALA and iMRI are significantly different at the border zone; 5-ALA has a higher sensitivity and a lower specificity for tumor detection than Gd-DTPA–enhanced iMRI. For detection of infiltrating tumor at the border of the resection cavity, 5-ALA is superior to Gd-DTPA–enhanced iMRI concerning both sensitivity and specificity. Thus, use of 5-ALA in addition to iMRI might be beneficial to maximize extent of resection. Clinical synergistic effects will be evaluated in a prospective randomized trial.
Andrej Paľa, Jan Coburger, Moritz Scherer, Hajrullah Ahmeti, Constantin Roder, Florian Gessler, Christine Jungk, Angelika Scheuerle, Christian Senft, Marcos Tatagiba, Michael Synowitz, Christian Rainer Wirtz, Bernd Schmitz and Andreas W. Unterberg
The level of evidence for adjuvant treatment of diffuse WHO grade II glioma (low-grade glioma, LGG) is low. In so-called “high-risk” patients most centers currently apply an early aggressive adjuvant treatment after surgery. The aim of this assessment was to compare progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) alone, chemotherapy (CT) alone, or a combined/consecutive RT+CT, with patients receiving no primary adjuvant treatment after surgery.
Based on a retrospective multicenter cohort of 288 patients (≥ 18 years old) with diffuse WHO grade II gliomas, a subgroup analysis of patients with a confirmed isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation was performed. The influence of primary adjuvant treatment after surgery on PFS and OS was assessed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and multivariate Cox regression models, including age (≥ 40 years), complete tumor resection (CTR), recurrent surgery, and astrocytoma versus oligodendroglioma.
One hundred forty-four patients matched the inclusion criteria. Forty patients (27.8%) received adjuvant treatment. The median follow-up duration was 6 years (95% confidence interval 4.8–6.3 years). The median overall PFS was 3.9 years and OS 16.1 years. PFS and OS were significantly longer without adjuvant treatment (p = 0.003). A significant difference in favor of no adjuvant therapy was observed even in high-risk patients (age ≥ 40 years or residual tumor, 3.9 vs 3.1 years, p = 0.025). In the multivariate model (controlled for age, CTR, oligodendroglial diagnosis, and recurrent surgery), patients who received no adjuvant therapy showed a significantly positive influence on PFS (p = 0.030) and OS (p = 0.009) compared to any other adjuvant treatment regimen. This effect was most pronounced if RT+CT was applied (p = 0.004, hazard ratio [HR] 2.7 for PFS, and p = 0.001, HR 20.2 for OS). CTR was independently associated with longer PFS (p = 0.019). Age ≥ 40 years, histopathological diagnosis, and recurrence did not achieve statistical significance.
In this series of IDH-mutated LGGs, adjuvant treatment with RT, CT with temozolomide (TMZ), or the combination of both showed no significant advantage in terms of PFS and OS. Even in high-risk patients, the authors observed a similar significantly negative impact of adjuvant treatment on PFS and OS. These results underscore the importance of a CTR in LGG. Whether patients ≥ 40 years old should receive adjuvant treatment despite a CTR should be a matter of debate. A potential tumor dedifferentiation by administration of early TMZ, RT, or RT+CT in IDH-mutated LGG should be considered. However, these data are limited by the retrospective study design and the potentially heterogeneous indication for adjuvant treatment.
Thomas Datzmann, Thomas Kapapa, Angelika Scheuerle, Oscar McCook, Tamara Merz, Sarah Unmuth, Andrea Hoffmann, René Mathieu, Simon Mayer, Uwe Max Mauer, Stefan Röhrer, Deniz Yilmazer-Hanke, Peter Möller, Benedikt Lukas Nussbaum, Enrico Calzia, Michael Gröger, Clair Hartmann, Peter Radermacher and Martin Wepler
Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is a leading entity in brain injury. Rodent models mostly lack standard intensive care, while large animal models frequently are only short term. Therefore, the authors developed a long-term, resuscitated porcine model of ASDH-induced brain injury and report their findings.
Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented pigs with human-like coagulation underwent subdural injection of 20 mL of autologous blood and subsequent observation for 54 hours. Continuous bilateral multimodal brain monitoring (intracranial pressure [ICP], cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP], partial pressure of oxygen in brain tissue [PbtO2], and brain temperature) was combined with intermittent neurological assessment (veterinary modified Glasgow Coma Scale [MGCS]), microdialysis, and measurement of plasma protein S100β, GFAP, neuron-specific enolase [NSE], nitrite+nitrate, and isoprostanes. Fluid resuscitation and continuous intravenous norepinephrine were targeted to maintain CPP at pre-ASDH levels. Immediately postmortem, the brains were taken for macroscopic and histological evaluation, immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine formation, albumin extravasation, NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and GFAP expression, and quantification of tissue mitochondrial respiration.
Nine of 11 pigs survived the complete observation period. While ICP significantly increased after ASDH induction, CPP, PbtO2, and the MGCS score remained unaffected. Blood S100β levels significantly fell over time, whereas GFAP, NSE, nitrite+nitrate, and isoprostane concentrations were unaltered. Immunohistochemistry showed nitrotyrosine formation, albumin extravasation, NOX2 expression, fibrillary astrogliosis, and microglial activation.
The authors describe a clinically relevant, long-term, resuscitated porcine model of ASDH-induced brain injury. Despite the morphological injury, maintaining CPP and PbtO2 prevented serious neurological dysfunction. This model is suitable for studying therapeutic interventions during hemorrhage-induced acute brain injury with standard brain-targeted intensive care.