Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widespread and valuable treatment for patients with movement disorders such as essential tremor (ET). However, current DBS treatment constantly delivers stimulation in an open loop, which can be inefficient. Closing the loop with sensors to provide feedback may increase power efficiency and reduce side effects for patients. New implantable neuromodulation platforms, such as the Medtronic Activa PC+S DBS system, offer important data sources by providing chronic neural sensing capabilities and a means of investigating dynamic stimulation based on symptom measurements. The authors implanted in a single patient with ET an Activa PC+S system, a cortical strip of electrodes on the hand sensorimotor cortex, and therapeutic electrodes in the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus. In this paper they describe the effectiveness of the platform when sensing cortical movement intentions while the patient actually performed and imagined performing movements. Additionally, they demonstrate dynamic closed-loop DBS based on several wearable sensor measurements of tremor intensity.
Jeffrey A. Herron, Margaret C. Thompson, Timothy Brown, Howard J. Chizeck, Jeffrey G. Ojemann and Andrew L. Ko
John E. Crossman, Dominic Thompson, Richard D. Hayward, Andrew O. Ransford and H. Alan Crockard
✓ Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is an uncommon condition of childhood. Occasionally AARF may recur. The authors describe the cases of four patients with recurrent AARF (RAARF).
The probable cause of the RAARF and operative procedure selected are discussed. In three cases, attempts were made to stabilize the atlantoaxial complex rather than to perform fusion to preserve the function of the joint complex.
Joint stabilization is performed by incorporating a “check ligament” into the joint construct between the axial spinous process and the atlantal lateral mass. The authors believe this technique of joint stabilization augments the strength of the joint, allowing normal, but preventing excessive, rotation, until the joint reaches physiological maturity.
Eric M. Thompson, Stephen G. Giles, Howard K. Song, Zachary N. Litvack, Kiarash J. Golshani and Andrew N. Nemecek
The authors report a complex case in a 35-year-old woman who underwent shunt placement at birth for myelomeningocele. She had previously undergone more than 30 shunt revisions, with placement of the distal catheter in the peritoneum multiple times, and also in the pleura, the gall bladder, and the upper venous system. All shunts had failed and the possible placement sites were now anatomically hostile. A median sternotomy was performed as the next option. The catheter was placed directly into the appendage of the right atrium and secured with a pursestring suture. One month postoperatively, the patient presented with a large pericardial effusion after the distal catheter migrated out of the atrium and into the pericardial space. A repeat sternotomy was performed to drain the pericardial CSF collection. The catheter was reinserted into the atrial appendage, and a tunnel was created in the atrial wall to fix the device more securely. At 1 year postoperatively, the patient had no further symptoms of shunt obstruction or cardiac tamponade, and imaging studies suggested that the shunt system was functional. The authors report the first successful ventricle to direct heart shunt in an adult.
Andrew C. Zacest, Michael Besser, Graham Stevens, John F. Thompson, William H. McCarthy and Gordana Culjak
Object. The aim of this study was to review the outcome of patients who underwent surgery for treatment of cerebral metastatic melanoma.
Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed in 147 patients with cerebral metastases from melanoma who were treated surgically at a single institution between 1979 and 1999. Almost all patients underwent postoperative whole-brain radiation therapy. The mean patient age was 53 years (range 17–76 years); 69% of patients were male. A single cerebral metastasis was identified in 84% of patients, although 56% had synchronous extracranial metastases. The 30-day postoperative mortality rate was 2% and neurological symptoms resolved or improved in 78% of patients. Recurrence of intracerebral disease was seen in 55% of patients and 26% died of intracerebral metastases. Twenty-four patients underwent reoperation for recurrent cerebral disease. The median survival duration from the time of surgery for all patients was 8.5 months; the 3- and 5-year survival rates were 9% and 5%, respectively. Factors that significantly influenced survival on univariate analysis were the number of cerebral metastases (p = 0.015), a macroscopically complete excision (p < 0.05), and reoperation for recurrence (p = 0.02). The presence of extracranial metastases did not significantly influence survival. On multivariate analysis only the number of cerebral metastases significantly affected survival (p = 0.04).
Conclusions. For the majority of patients with cerebral metastases from melanoma, surgery with adjuvant radiation therapy is a treatment option that improves neurological symptoms and produces minimal morbidity. Long-term survival (> 3 years) most likely occurs in patients with a single cerebral metastasis and no demonstrable extracranial disease. Reoperation for recurrent cerebral disease may be appropriate in selected cases.
Yi-Chieh Hung, Cheng-Chia Lee, Huai-che Yang, Nasser Mohammed, Kathryn N. Kearns, Ahmed M. Nabeel, Khaled Abdel Karim, Reem M. Emad Eldin, Amr M. N. El-Shehaby, Wael A. Reda, Sameh R. Tawadros, Roman Liscak, Jana Jezkova, L. Dade Lunsford, Hideyuki Kano, Nathaniel D. Sisterson, Roberto Martínez Álvarez, Nuria E. Martínez Moreno, Douglas Kondziolka, John G. Golfinos, Inga Grills, Andrew Thompson, Hamid Borghei-Razavi, Tanmoy Kumar Maiti, Gene H. Barnett, James McInerney, Brad E. Zacharia, Zhiyuan Xu and Jason P. Sheehan
The most common functioning pituitary adenoma is prolactinoma. Patients with medically refractory or residual/recurrent tumors that are not amenable to resection can be treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the role of SRS for treating prolactinomas.
This retrospective study included prolactinomas treated with SRS between 1997 and 2016 at ten institutions. Patients’ clinical and treatment parameters were investigated. Patients were considered to be in endocrine remission when they had a normal level of prolactin (PRL) without requiring dopamine agonist medications. Endocrine control was defined as endocrine remission or a controlled PRL level ≤ 30 ng/ml with dopamine agonist therapy. Other outcomes were evaluated including new-onset hormone deficiency, tumor recurrence, and new neurological complications.
The study cohort comprised 289 patients. The endocrine remission rates were 28%, 41%, and 54% at 3, 5, and 8 years after SRS, respectively. Following SRS, 25% of patients (72/289) had new hormone deficiency. Sixty-three percent of the patients (127/201) with available data attained endocrine control. Three percent of patients (9/269) had a new visual complication after SRS. Five percent of the patients (13/285) were recorded as having tumor progression. A pretreatment PRL level ≤ 270 ng/ml was a predictor of endocrine remission (p = 0.005, adjusted HR 0.487). An increasing margin dose resulted in better endocrine control after SRS (p = 0.033, adjusted OR 1.087).
In patients with medically refractory prolactinomas or a residual/recurrent prolactinoma, SRS affords remarkable therapeutic effects in endocrine remission, endocrine control, and tumor control. New-onset hypopituitarism is the most common adverse event.