Andrew S. Moon and Sakthivel R. Manoharan
Alfred P. See, Bruno C. Flores, Karam Moon, Andrew F. Ducruet, Robert F. Spetzler and Felipe C. Albuquerque
Supratentorial arteriovenous malformations in eloquent territories can be difficult to resect. This video presents the treatment of a patient with a symptomatic 3-cm arteriovenous malformation in the left motor strip. At the authors’ institution, per the surgeon’s discretion, preoperative angiography is performed to evaluate the need for preoperative embolization. Multimodality treatment reduced the microsurgical risk by allowing early occlusion of a draining vein, by decreasing overall intraoperative hemorrhage, and by allowing minimal pial dissection in the deep aspect of the arteriovenous malformation that abutted the corticospinal tract. The choice of embolysate was an additional nuance of the embolization.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/HWZ0RjgPEXg.
Karam Moon, Felipe C. Albuquerque, Andrew F. Ducruet, R. Webster Crowley and Cameron G. McDougall
Intracranial aneurysms, especially those of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA), can present with cranial nerve (CN) palsies. The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has demonstrated safety and efficacy in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms by flow diversion, but little data exist reporting the outcomes of cranial neuropathies following treatment with the device.
The prospectively maintained Barrow Neurological Institute's endovascular database was reviewed for all patients treated with the PED after presenting with one or more CN palsies secondary to a cerebral aneurysm since May 2011. Patient charts and digital subtraction angiograms were reviewed to report clinical and angiographic outcomes. Only patients with clinical follow-up were included in the analysis.
A total of 127 patients were treated with the PED at the authors' institution after FDA approval. Twentytwo patients presented with cranial neuropathies, for initial inclusion in this study. Of these, 20 had sufficient followup for analysis. Cranial neuropathies included those of CN II, III, V, and VI, with presenting symptoms of diplopia, decreased visual acuity, and facial numbness and/or pain. Thirteen lesions were cavernous segment ICA aneurysms, whereas the remainder included supraclinoid and petrous segment ICA, posterior communicating artery, and basilar trunk aneurysms. At an average clinical follow-up of 9.55 months, 15 patients (75%) had resolution or significant improvement of their cranial neuropathies, and the remaining 5 had stable symptoms. Of the 18 patients with angiographic follow-up, 12 (66.7%) demonstrated complete obliteration or small neck residual, whereas 6 (33.3%) had residual lesion. Patients with complete or near-complete obliteration of their lesion were significantly more likely to demonstrate symptomatic improvement at follow-up (p = 0.009). Two patients with persistent symptoms were eventually treated with microsurgical bypass. Transient complications in this series included 6 (30%) extracranial hemorrhagic complications related to dual-antiplatelet therapy, all of which were managed medically. There was 1 delayed right ICA occlusion following retreatment that led to microsurgical bypass.
Intracranial aneurysms presenting with one or more CN palsies show a high rate of clinical improvement after treatment with the PED. Clinical outcomes must be weighed against the risks and challenges faced with flow diverters. Further research is warranted for patients whose symptoms do not respond optimally to device placement.
Karam Moon, Andrew F. Ducruet, R. Webster Crowley, Kathleen Klas, Ruth Bristol and Felipe C. Albuquerque
In this paper the authors report the case of a complex dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) with high-risk features in a 14-year-old girl with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), a phosphatase and tensin homolog–associated syndrome, presenting with signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) that had previously been attributed to pseudotumor cerebri. This fistula was obliterated following 2 stages of embolization, and the patient experienced immediate symptomatic improvement. At the 2-month follow-up evaluation, the fistula remained angiographically occluded, and her symptoms continue to improve. This is the third reported case of an intracranial dAVF in a patient with BRRS. Because high-risk dAVFs can result in devastating morbidity, early detection with vascular imaging is crucial for patients with BRRS presenting with signs of increased ICP. Goals of treatment should include complete fistula obliteration whenever possible.
Michael R. Levitt, Randall J. Hlubek, Karam Moon, M. Yashar S. Kalani, Peter Nakaji, Kris A. Smith, Andrew S. Little, Kerry Knievel, Jane W. Chan, Cameron G. McDougall and Felipe C. Albuquerque
Cerebral venous pressure gradient (CVPG) from dural venous sinus stenosis is implicated in headache syndromes such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The incidence of CVPG in headache patients has not been reported.
The authors reviewed all cerebral venograms with manometry performed for headache between January 2008 and May 2015. Patient demographics, headache etiology, intracranial pressure (ICP) measurements, and radiographic and manometric results were recorded. CVPG was defined as a difference ≥ 8 mm Hg by venographic manometry.
One hundred sixty-four venograms were performed in 155 patients. There were no procedural complications. Ninety-six procedures (58.5%) were for patients with IIH. The overall incidence of CVPG was 25.6% (42 of 164 procedures): 35.4% (34 of 96 procedures) in IIH patients and 11.8% (8 of 68 procedures) in non-IIH patients. Sixty procedures (36.6%) were performed in patients with preexisting shunts. Seventy-seven patients (49.7%) had procedures preceded by an ICP measurement within 4 weeks of venography, and in 66 (85.7%) of these patients, the ICP had been found to be elevated. CVPG was seen in 8.3% (n = 5) of the procedures in the 60 patients with a preexisting shunt and in 0% (n = 0) of the 11 procedures in the 77 patients with normal ICP (p < 0.001 for both). Noninvasive imaging (MR venography, CT venography) was assessed prior to venography in 112 (68.3%) of 164 cases, and dural venous sinus abnormalities were demonstrated in 73 (65.2%) of these cases; there was a trend toward CVPG (p = 0.07). Multivariate analysis demonstrated an increased likelihood of CVPG in patients with IIH (OR 4.97, 95% CI 1.71–14.47) and a decreased likelihood in patients with a preexisting shunt (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.44).
CVPG is uncommon in IIH patients, rare in those with preexisting shunts, and absent in those with normal ICP.