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M. Harrison Snyder, Ching-Jen Chen, Faraz Farzad, Natasha Ironside, Ryan T. Kellogg, Andrew M. Southerland, Min S. Park, Jason P. Sheehan, and Dale Ding

OBJECTIVE

A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA) suggested that medical management afforded outcomes superior to those following intervention for unruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), but its findings have been controversial. Subsequent studies of AVMs that would have met the eligibility requirements of ARUBA have supported intervention for the management of some cases. The present meta-analysis was conducted with the object of summarizing interventional outcomes for ARUBA-eligible patients reported in the literature.

METHODS

A systematic literature search (PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar) for AVM intervention studies that used inclusion criteria identical to those of ARUBA (age ≥ 18 years, no history of AVM hemorrhage, no prior intervention) was performed. The primary outcome was death or symptomatic stroke. Secondary outcomes included AVM obliteration, hemorrhage, death, and poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 2 at final follow-up). Bias assessment was performed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and the results were synthesized as pooled proportions.

RESULTS

Of the 343 articles identified through database searches, 13 studies met the inclusion criteria, yielding an overall study cohort of 1909 patients. The primary outcome occurred in 11.2% of patients (pooled = 11%, 95% CI 8%–13%). The rates of AVM obliteration, hemorrhage, poor outcome, and death were 72.7% (pooled = 78%, 95% CI 70%–85%), 8.4% (pooled = 8%, 95% CI 6%–11%), 9.9% (pooled = 10%, 95% CI 7%–13%), and 3.5% (pooled = 2%, 95% CI 1%–4%), respectively. Annualized primary outcome and hemorrhage risks were 1.85 (pooled = 2.05, 95% CI 1.31–2.94) and 1.34 (pooled = 1.41, 95% CI 0.83–2.13) per 100 patient-years, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Intervention for unruptured AVMs affords acceptable outcomes for appropriately selected patients. The risk of hemorrhage following intervention compared favorably to the natural history of unruptured AVMs. The included studies were retrospective and varied in treatment and AVM characteristics, thereby limiting the generalizability of their data. Future studies from prospective registries may clarify patient, nidus, and intervention selection criteria that will refine the challenging management of patients with unruptured AVMs.

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Ching-Jen Chen, Dale Ding, Natasha Ironside, Thomas J. Buell, Andrew M. Southerland, Fernando D. Testai, Daniel Woo, Bradford B. Worrall, and for the ERICH Investigators

OBJECTIVE

The utility of ICP monitoring and its benefit with respect to outcomes after ICH is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) outcomes in patients who underwent intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring to those who were managed by care-guided imaging and/or clinical examination alone.

METHODS

This was a retrospective analysis of data from the Ethnic/Racial variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study between 2010 and 2015. ICH patients who underwent ICP monitoring were propensity-score matched, in a 1:1 ratio, to those who did not undergo ICP monitoring. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, hyperosmolar therapy use, ICH evacuation, length of hospital stay, and 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score, excellent outcome (mRS score 0–1), good outcome (mRS score 0–2), Barthel Index, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; measured by EQ-5D and EQ-5D visual analog scale [VAS] scores). A secondary analysis for patients without intraventricular hemorrhage was performed.

RESULTS

The ICP and no ICP monitoring cohorts comprised 566 and 2434 patients, respectively. The matched cohorts comprised 420 patients each. The 90-day and in-hospital mortality rates were similar between the matched cohorts. Shift analysis of 90-day mRS favored no ICP monitoring (p < 0.001). The rates of excellent (p < 0.001) and good (p < 0.001) outcome, Barthel Index (p < 0.001), EQ-5D score (p = 0.026), and EQ-5D VAS score (p = 0.004) at 90 days were lower in the matched ICP monitoring cohort. Rates of mannitol use (p < 0.001), hypertonic saline use (p < 0.001), ICH evacuation (p < 0.001), and infection (p = 0.001) were higher, and length of hospital stay (p < 0.001) was longer in the matched ICP monitoring cohort. In the secondary analysis, the matched cohorts comprised 111 patients each. ICP monitoring had a lower rate of 90-day mortality (p = 0.041). Shift analysis of 90-day mRS, Barthel Index, and HRQoL metrics were comparable between the matched cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS

The findings of this study do not support the routine utilization of ICP monitoring in patients with ICH.