Andrew L. A. Garton, Connor J. Kinslow, and Tony J. C. Wang
Bharti Kewlani, Andrew L. A. Garton, Ibrahim Hussain, J. Levi Chazen, Matthew S. Robbins, Ali A. Baaj, and Jeffrey P. Greenfield
Intracranial hypotension (IH) manifests with orthostatic headaches secondary to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia. Common iatrogenic etiologies include lumbar punctures and spinal surgery. Although much rarer, structural defects such as osteophytes and herniated calcified discs can violate dural integrity, resulting in CSF leak.
The authors reported the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with progressively worsening orthostatic headaches. During an extensive examination, magnetic resonance imaging of her thoracic spine revealed a cervicothoracic ventral epidural collection of CSF, prompting a dynamic computed tomography myelogram, which not only helped to confirm severe cerebral hypotension but also suggested underlying pathology of a dorsally projecting disc osteophyte complex at T2–3. Conservative and medical management failed to alleviate symptoms, and a permanent surgical cure was eventually sought. The patient underwent a transdural thoracic discectomy with dural repair, which resulted in resolution of her symptoms.
Clear guidelines regarding the management strategy of IH secondary to disc osteophyte complexes are yet to be established. A thorough literature review noted only 24 reported cases between 1998 and 2019, in which 13 patients received surgery. There is a 46% symptom resolution rate with conservative management, lower than that for iatrogenic etiologies. For patients in whom conservative management failed, surgical intervention proved effective in resolving symptoms, with a success rate of 92.3%.
Alexandra M. Giantini-Larsen, Rafael Uribe-Cardenas, Francis N. Villamater, Andrew L. A. Garton, and Mark M. Souweidane
Saniya S. Godil, Umberto Tosi, Mina Gerges, Andrew L. A. Garton, Georgiana A. Dobri, Ashutosh Kacker, Abtin Tabaee, Vijay K. Anand, and Theodore H. Schwartz
Surgical management of craniopharyngiomas (CPAs) is challenging. Controversy exists regarding the optimal goals of surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of patients who underwent gross-total resection with the outcomes of those who underwent subtotal resection of their CPA via an endoscopic endonasal approach.
From a prospectively maintained database of all endoscopic endonasal approaches performed at Weill Cornell Medicine, only patients with CPAs with > 3 years of follow-up after surgery were included. The primary endpoint was radiographic progression. Data were collected on baseline demographics, imaging, endocrine function, visual function, and extent of resection.
A total of 44 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.7 ± 2.6 years were included. Of these patients, 14 (31.8%) had prior surgery. GTR was achieved in 77.3% (34/44) of all patients and 89.5% (34/38) of patients in whom it was the goal of surgery. Preoperative tumor volume < 10 cm3 was highly predictive of GTR (p < 0.001). Radiation therapy was administered within the first 3 months after surgery in 1 (2.9%) of 34 patients with GTR and 7 (70%) of 10 patients with STR (p < 0.001). The 5-year recurrence-free/progression-free survival rate was 75.0% after GTR and 25.0% after STR (45% in subgroup with STR plus radiotherapy; p < 0.001). The time to recurrence after GTR was 30.2 months versus 13 months after STR (5.8 months in subgroup with STR plus radiotherapy; p < 0.001). Patients with GTR had a lower rate of visual deterioration and higher rate of return to work or school compared with those with STR (p = 0.02). Patients with GTR compared to STR had a lower rate of CSF leakage (0.0% vs 30%, p = 0.001) but a higher rate of diabetes insipidus (85.3% vs 50%, p = 0.02).
GTR, which is possible to achieve in smaller tumors, resulted in improved tumor control, better visual outcome, and better functional recovery but a higher rate of diabetes insipidus compared with STR, even when the latter was supplemented with postoperative radiation therapy. GTR should be the goal of craniopharyngioma surgery, when achievable with minimal morbidity.
Andrew L. A. Garton, Connor J. Kinslow, Ali I. Rae, Amol Mehta, Susan C. Pannullo, Rajiv S. Magge, Rohan Ramakrishna, Guy M. McKhann, Michael B. Sisti, Jeffrey N. Bruce, Peter Canoll, Simon K. Cheng, Adam M. Sonabend, and Tony J. C. Wang
Genomic analysis in neurooncology has underscored the importance of understanding the patterns of survival in different molecular subtypes within gliomas and their responses to treatment. In particular, diffuse gliomas are now principally characterized by their mutation status (IDH1 and 1p/19q codeletion), yet there remains a paucity of information regarding the prognostic value of molecular markers and extent of resection (EOR) on survival. Furthermore, given the modern emphasis on molecular rather than histological diagnosis, it is important to examine the effect of maximal resection on survival in all gliomas with 1p/q19 codeletions, as these will now be classified as oligodendrogliomas under the new WHO guidelines.
The objectives of the present study were twofold: 1) to assess the association between EOR and survival for patients with oligodendrogliomas in the National Cancer Database (NCDB), which includes information on mutation status, and 2) to demonstrate the same effect for all patients with 1p/19q codeleted gliomas in the NCDB.
The NCDB was queried for all cases of oligodendroglioma between 2004 and 2014, with follow-up dates through 2016. The authors found 2514 cases of histologically confirmed oligodendrogliomas for the final analysis of the effect of EOR on survival. Upon further query, 1067 1p/19q-codeleted tumors were identified in the NCDB. Patients who received subtotal resection (STR) or gross-total resection (GTR) were compared to those who received no tumor debulking surgery. Univariable and multivariable analyses of both overall survival and cause-specific survival were performed.
EOR was associated with increased overall survival for both histologically confirmed oligodendrogliomas and all 1p/19q-codeleted–defined tumors (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Tumor grade, location, and size covaried predictably with EOR. When evaluating tumors by each classification system for predictors of overall survival, facility setting, age, comorbidity index, grade, location, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy were all shown to be significantly associated with overall survival. STR and GTR were independent predictors of improved survival in historically classified oligodendrogliomas (HR 0.83, p = 0.18; HR 0.69, p = 0.01, respectively) and in 1p/19q-codeleted tumors (HR 0.49, p < 0.01; HR 0.43, p < 0.01, respectively).
By using the NCDB, the authors have demonstrated a side-by-side comparison of the survival benefits of greater EOR in 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas.