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Chao-Hung Kuo, Gabrielle A. White-Dzuro and Andrew L. Ko

OBJECTIVE

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a safe and effective therapy for movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), and dystonia. There is considerable interest in developing “closed-loop” DBS devices capable of modulating stimulation in response to sensor feedback. In this paper, the authors review related literature and present selected approaches to signal sources and approaches to feedback being considered for deployment in closed-loop systems.

METHODS

A literature search using the keywords “closed-loop DBS” and “adaptive DBS” was performed in the PubMed database. The search was conducted for all articles published up until March 2018. An in-depth review was not performed for publications not written in the English language, nonhuman studies, or topics other than Parkinson’s disease or essential tremor, specifically epilepsy and psychiatric conditions.

RESULTS

The search returned 256 articles. A total of 71 articles were primary studies in humans, of which 50 focused on treatment of movement disorders. These articles were reviewed with the aim of providing an overview of the features of closed-loop systems, with particular attention paid to signal sources and biomarkers, general approaches to feedback control, and clinical data when available.

CONCLUSIONS

Closed-loop DBS seeks to employ biomarkers, derived from sensors such as electromyography, electrocorticography, and local field potentials, to provide real-time, patient-responsive therapy for movement disorders. Most studies appear to focus on the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Several approaches hold promise, but additional studies are required to determine which approaches are feasible, efficacious, and efficient.

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Daniel R. Cleary, Alp Ozpinar, Ahmed M. Raslan and Andrew L. Ko

Fossil records showing trephination in the Stone Age provide evidence that humans have sought to influence the mind through physical means since before the historical record. Attempts to treat psychiatric disease via neurosurgical means in the 20th century provided some intriguing initial results. However, the indiscriminate application of these treatments, lack of rigorous evaluation of the results, and the side effects of ablative, irreversible procedures resulted in a backlash against brain surgery for psychiatric disorders that continues to this day. With the advent of psychotropic medications, interest in invasive procedures for organic brain disease waned.

Diagnosis and classification of psychiatric diseases has improved, due to a better understanding of psychiatric patho-physiology and the development of disease and treatment biomarkers. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of patients remain refractory to multiple modes of treatment, and psychiatric disease remains the number one cause of disability in the world. These data, along with the safe and efficacious application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders, in principle a reversible process, is rekindling interest in the surgical treatment of psychiatric disorders with stimulation of deep brain sites involved in emotional and behavioral circuitry.

This review presents a brief history of psychosurgery and summarizes the development of DBS for psychiatric disease, reviewing the available evidence for the current application of DBS for disorders of the mind.

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Andrew L. Ko, Albert Lee, Ahmed M. Raslan, Alp Ozpinar, Shirley McCartney and Kim J. Burchiel

OBJECT

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) occurs and recurs in the absence of neurovascular compression (NVC). To characterize what may be distinct patient populations, the authors examined age at onset in patients with TN with and without NVC.

METHODS

A retrospective review of patients undergoing posterior fossa surgery for Type I TN at Oregon Health & Science University from 2009 to 2013 was undertaken. Charts were reviewed, and imaging and operative data were collected for patients with and without NVC. Mean, median, and the empirical cumulative distribution of onset age were determined. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t-test, Wilcoxon and Kolmogorov-Smirnoff tests, and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model.

RESULTS

The charts of 219 patients with TN were reviewed. There were 156 patients who underwent posterior fossa exploration and microvascular decompression or internal neurolysis: 129 patients with NVC and 27 without NVC. Mean age at symptoms onset for patients with and without NVC was 51.1 and 42.6 years, respectively. This difference (8.4 years) was significant (t-test: p = 0.007), with sufficient power to detect an effect size of 8.2 years. Median age between groups with and without NVC was 53.25 and 41.2 years, respectively (p = 0.003). Histogram analysis revealed a bimodal age at onset in patients without NVC, and cumulative distribution of age at onset revealed an earlier presentation of symptoms (p = 0.003) in patients without NVC. Chi-square analysis revealed a trend toward female predominance in patients without NVC, which was not significant (p = 0.08). Multivariate analysis revealed that age at onset was related to NVC but not sex, symptom side or distribution, or patient response to medical treatment.

CONCLUSIONS

NVC is neither sufficient nor necessary for the development of TN. Patients with TN without NVC may represent a distinct population of younger, predominantly female patients. Further research into the pathophysiology underlying this debilitating disease is needed.

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Andrew L. Ko, Alp Ozpinar, Albert Lee, Ahmed M. Raslan, Shirley McCartney and Kim J. Burchiel

OBJECT

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) occurs and recurs in the absence of neurovascular compression (NVC). While microvascular decompression (MVD) is the most effective treatment for TN, it is not possible when NVC is not present. Therefore, the authors sought to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and durability of internal neurolysis (IN), or “nerve combing,” as a treatment for TN without NVC.

METHODS

This was a retrospective review of all cases of Type 1 TN involving all patients 18 years of age or older who underwent evaluation (and surgery when appropriate) at Oregon Health & Science University between July 2006 and February 2013. Chart reviews and telephone interviews were conducted to assess patient outcomes. Pain intensity was evaluated with the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) Pain Intensity scale, and the Brief Pain Inventory–Facial (BPI-Facial) was used to assess general and face-specific activity. Pain-free survival and durability of successful pain relief (BNI pain scores of 1 or 2) were statistically evaluated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Prognostic factors were identified and analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression.

RESULTS

A total of 177 patients with Type 1 TN were identified. A subgroup of 27 was found to have no NVC on high-resolution MRI/MR angiography or at surgery. These patients were significantly younger than patients with classic Type 1 TN. Long-term follow-up was available for 26 of 27 patients, and 23 responded to the telephone survey. The median follow-up duration was 43.4 months. Immediate postoperative results were comparable to MVD, with 85% of patients pain free and 96% of patients with successful pain relief. At 1 year and 5 years, the rate of pain-free survival was 58% and 47%, respectively. Successful pain relief at those intervals was maintained in 77% and 72% of patients. Almost all patients experienced some degree of numbness or hypesthesia (96%), but in patients with successful pain relief, this numbness did not significantly impact their quality of life. There was 1 patient with a CSF leak and 1 patient with anesthesia dolorosa. Previous treatment for TN was identified as a poor prognostic factor for successful outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first report of IN with meaningful outcomes data. This study demonstrated that IN is a safe, effective, and durable treatment for TN in the absence of NVC. Pain-free outcomes with IN appeared to be more durable than radiofrequency gangliolysis, and IN appears to be more effective than stereotactic radiosurgery, 2 alternatives to posterior fossa exploration in cases of TN without NVC. Given the younger age distribution of patients in this group, consideration should be given to performing IN as an initial treatment. Accrual of further outcomes data is warranted.

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Jeffrey A. Herron, Margaret C. Thompson, Timothy Brown, Howard J. Chizeck, Jeffrey G. Ojemann and Andrew L. Ko

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widespread and valuable treatment for patients with movement disorders such as essential tremor (ET). However, current DBS treatment constantly delivers stimulation in an open loop, which can be inefficient. Closing the loop with sensors to provide feedback may increase power efficiency and reduce side effects for patients. New implantable neuromodulation platforms, such as the Medtronic Activa PC+S DBS system, offer important data sources by providing chronic neural sensing capabilities and a means of investigating dynamic stimulation based on symptom measurements. The authors implanted in a single patient with ET an Activa PC+S system, a cortical strip of electrodes on the hand sensorimotor cortex, and therapeutic electrodes in the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus. In this paper they describe the effectiveness of the platform when sensing cortical movement intentions while the patient actually performed and imagined performing movements. Additionally, they demonstrate dynamic closed-loop DBS based on several wearable sensor measurements of tremor intensity.

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S. Andrew Josephson, Vanja C. Douglas, Michael T. Lawton, Joey D. English, Wade S. Smith and Nerissa U. Ko

Object

Neurointensivists are specialists trained to manage all aspects of the intensive care unit (ICU) stay of neurologically ill patients. No study to date has examined the role of neurointensivists specifically in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) management. This study examined the use of a team-based neurointensivist co-management approach.

Methods

The authors reviewed all cases involving patients with SAH admitted to the neurosurgical service during a period of more than 4 years. A comparison was made between those patients admitted before and those admitted after the initiation of a mandatory neurointensivist co-management strategy. The primary outcome examined was length of ICU stay. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, and other complications such as fever, antibiotic use, pressor utilization, and ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Results

A total of 512 patients were included, 216 prior to and 296 after the initiation of neurointensivist comanagement. Length of ICU stay was significantly decreased after the initiation of neurointensivist co-management (mean 12.4 vs 10.9 days, p = 0.02), even after adjusting for demographic characteristics and admission Hunt and Hess grade. The percentage of patients requiring a ventriculoperitoneal shunt significantly decreased after initiation of the co-management approach (23.0 vs 11.5%, p = 0.001), but in-house mortality was unaffected.

Conclusions

Initiation of a strategy of routine involvement of a neurointensivist, charged with managing all aspects of the patients' care, resulted in a significantly reduced length of ICU stay for neurosurgical SAH patients. This team-based approach, using neurointensivists to manage neurosurgical SAH patients, merits further study as a successful model of care.

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Andrew L. Ko, Patrik Gabikian, Jonathan A. Perkins, David P. Gruber and Anthony M. Avellino

Anatomical variants of the basiocciput are uncommon and usually clinically benign. While the majority remain undetected, these anomalies rarely manifest as CSF rhinorrhea or recurrent meningitis associated with meningocele. Compromise of the leptomeninges provides an avenue of ingress for pathological organisms and can lead to recurrent meningitis, necessitating operative repair of the defect to prevent infection. A review of the literature reveals only 3 cases in which a congenital basioccipital defect has been associated with a meningocele requiring surgical repair.

The authors present a case of recurrent meningitis in an infant with a congenital basioccipital meningocele treated with a minimally invasive endoscopic technique. At the 2-year follow-up the repair remained successful, with no evidence of recurrence of the meningocele or CSF infection. The literature regarding the etiology and treatment of these lesions was reviewed, with an emphasis on the safety and efficacy of the endoscopic approach. Note that recurrent meningitis in the setting of a skull base defect may indicate the presence of other congenital anomalies that will necessitate multidisciplinary care for a patient's long-term well-being.

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Andrew L. Ko, Alp Ozpinar, Jeffrey S. Raskin, Stephen T. Magill, Ahmed M. Raslan and Kim J. Burchiel

OBJECT

Lesioning of the dorsal root entry zone (DREZotomy) is an effective treatment for brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) pain. The role of preoperative assessment with MRI has been shown to be unreliable for determining affected levels; however, it may have a role in predicting pain outcomes. Here, DREZotomy outcomes are reviewed and preoperative MRI is examined as a possible prognostic factor.

METHODS

A retrospective review was performed of an institutional database of patients who had undergone brachial plexus DREZ procedures since 1995. Preoperative MRI was examined to assess damage to the DREZ or dorsal horn, as evidenced by avulsion of the DREZ or T2 hyperintensity within the spinal cord. Phone interviews were conducted to assess the long-term pain outcomes.

RESULTS

Between 1995 and 2012, 27 patients were found to have undergone cervical DREZ procedures for BPA. Of these, 15 had preoperative MR images of the cervical spine available for review. The outcomes were graded from 1 to 4 as poor (no significant relief), good (more than 50% pain relief), excellent (more than 75% pain relief), or pain free, respectively. Overall, DREZotomy was found to be a safe, efficacious, and durable procedure for relief of pain due to BPA. The initial success rate was 73%, which declined to 66% at a median follow-up time of 62.5 months. Damage to the DREZ or dorsal horn was significantly correlated with poorer outcomes (p = 0.02). The average outcomes in patients without MRI evidence of DREZ or dorsal horn damage was significantly higher than in patients with such damage (3.67 vs 1.75, t-test; p = 0.001). A longer duration of pain prior to operation was also a significant predictor of treatment success (p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS

Overall, the DREZotomy procedure has a 66% chance of achieving meaningful pain relief on long-term follow-up. Successful pain relief is associated with the lack of damage to the DREZ and dorsal horn on preoperative MRI.

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Michael Kogan, David J. Caldwell, Shahin Hakimian, Kurt E. Weaver, Andrew L. Ko and Jeffery G. Ojemann

OBJECTIVE

Electrocorticography is an indispensable tool in identifying the epileptogenic zone in the presurgical evaluation of many epilepsy patients. Traditional electrocorticographic features (spikes, ictal onset changes, and recently high-frequency oscillations [HFOs]) rely on the presence of transient features that occur within or near epileptogenic cortex. Here the authors report on a novel corticography feature of epileptogenic cortex—covariation of high-gamma and beta frequency band power profiles. Band-limited power was measured from each recording site based on native physiological signal differences without relying on clinical ictal or interictal epileptogenic features. In this preliminary analysis, frequency windowed power correlation appears to be a specific marker of the epileptogenic zone. The authors’ overall aim was to validate this observation with the location of the eventual resection and outcome.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 13 adult patients who had undergone electrocorticography for surgical planning at their center. They quantified the correlation of high-gamma (70–200 Hz) and beta (12–18 Hz) band frequency power per electrode site during a cognitive task. They used a sliding window method to correlate the power of smoothed, Hilbert-transformed high-gamma and beta bands. They then compared positive and negative correlations between power in the high-gamma and beta bands in the setting of a hand versus a tongue motor task as well as within the resting state. Significant positive correlations were compared to surgically resected areas and outcomes based on reviewed records.

RESULTS

Positive high-gamma and beta correlations appeared to predict the area of eventual resection and, preliminarily, surgical outcome independent of spike detection. In general, patients with the best outcomes had well-localized positive correlations (high-gamma and beta activities) to areas of eventual resection, while those with poorer outcomes displayed more diffuse patterns.

CONCLUSIONS

Data in this study suggest that positive high-gamma and beta correlations independent of any behavioral metric may have clinical applicability in surgical decision-making. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical potential of this methodology. Additional work is also needed to relate these results to other methods, such as HFO detection or connectivity with other cortical areas.