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Andrew B. Harris, Floreana Kebaish, Lee H. Riley III, Khaled M. Kebaish and Richard L. Skolasky

OBJECTIVE

Care satisfaction is an important metric to health systems and payers. Patient activation is a hierarchical construct following 4 stages: 1) having a belief that taking an active role in their care is important, 2) having knowledge and skills to manage their condition, 3) having the confidence to make necessary behavioral changes, and 4) having an ability to maintain those changes in times of stress. The authors hypothesized that patients with a high level of activation, measured using the Patient Activation Measure (PAM), will be more engaged in their care and, therefore, will be more likely to be satisfied with the results of their surgical treatment.

METHODS

Using a prospectively collected registry at a multiprovider university practice, the authors examined patients who underwent elective surgery (n = 257) for cervical or lumbar spinal disorders. Patients were assessed before and after surgery (6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months) using Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) health domains and the PAM. Satisfaction was assessed using the Patient Satisfaction Index. Using repeated-measures logistic regression, the authors compared the likelihood of being satisfied across stages of patient activation after adjusting for baseline characteristics (i.e., age, sex, race, education, income, and marital status).

RESULTS

While a majority of patients endorsed the highest level of activation (56%), 51 (20%) endorsed the lower two stages (neither believing that taking an active role was important nor having the knowledge and skills to manage their condition). Preoperative patient activation was weakly correlated (r ≤ 0.2) with PROMIS health domains. The most activated patients were 3 times more likely to be satisfied with their treatment at 1 year (OR 3.23, 95% CI 1.8–5.8). Similarly, patients in the second-highest stage of activation also demonstrated significantly greater odds of being satisfied (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5–5.3).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients who are more engaged in their healthcare prior to elective spine surgery are significantly more likely to be satisfied with their postoperative outcome. Clinicians may want to implement previously proven techniques to increase patient activation in order to improve patient satisfaction following elective spine surgery.

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Mark Ren, Barry R. Bryant, Andrew B. Harris, Khaled M. Kebaish, Lee H. Riley III, David B. Cohen, Richard L. Skolasky and Brian J. Neuman

OBJECTIVE

The objectives of the study were to determine, among patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD), the following: 1) how preoperative opioid use, dose, and duration of use are associated with long-term opioid use and dose; 2) how preoperative opioid use is associated with rates of postoperative use from 6 weeks to 2 years; and 3) how postoperative opioid use at 6 months and 1 year is associated with use at 2 years.

METHODS

Using a single-center, longitudinally maintained registry, the authors identified 87 patients who underwent ASD surgery from 2013 to 2017. Fifty-nine patients reported preoperative opioid use (37 high-dose [≥ 90 morphine milligram equivalents daily] and 22 low-dose use). The duration of preoperative use was long-term (≥ 6 months) for 44 patients and short-term for 15. The authors evaluated postoperative opioid use at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine associations of preoperative opioid use, dose, and duration with use at each time point (alpha = 0.05).

RESULTS

The following preoperative factors were associated with opioid use 2 years postoperatively: any opioid use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 14, 95% CI 2.5–82), high-dose use (aOR 7.3, 95% CI 1.1–48), and long-term use (aOR 17, 95% CI 2.2–123). All patients who reported high-dose opioid use at the 2-year follow-up examination had also reported preoperative opioid use. Preoperative high-dose use (aOR 247, 95% CI 5.8–10,546) but not long-term use (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 0.18–91) was associated with high-dose use at the 2-year follow-up visit. Compared with patients who reported no preoperative use, those who reported preoperative opioid use had higher rates of use at each postoperative time point (from 94% vs 62% at 6 weeks to 54% vs 7.1% at 2 years) (all p < 0.001). Opioid use at 2 years was independently associated with use at 1 year (aOR 33, 95% CI 6.8–261) but not at 6 months (aOR 4.3, 95% CI 0.95–24).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients’ preoperative opioid use, dose, and duration of use are associated with long-term use after ASD surgery, and a high preoperative dose is also associated with high-dose opioid use at the 2-year follow-up visit. Patients using opioids 1 year after ASD surgery may be at risk for long-term use.

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Sandi K. Lam, Christina Sayama, Dominic A. Harris, Valentina Briceño, Thomas G. Luerssen and Andrew Jea

Object

Current national patterns as a function of patient-, hospital-, and procedure-related factors, and complication rates in the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein–2 (rhBMP-2) as an adjunct to the practice of pediatric spine surgery have scarcely been investigated.

Methods

The authors conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, and p values < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.

Results

The authors identified 9538 hospitalizations in pediatric patients 20 years old or younger who had undergone spinal fusion in the US in 2009; 1541 of these admissions were associated with rhBMP-2 use. By multivariate logistic regression, the following factors were associated with rhBMP-2 use: patient age 15–20 years; length of hospital stay (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.01, p = 0.017); insurance status (private [aOR 1.49, p < 0.001] compared with Medicaid); hospital type (nonchildren's hospital); region (Midwest [aOR 2.49, p = 0.008] compared with Northeast); spinal refusion (aOR 2.20, p < 0.001); spinal fusion approach/segment (anterior lumbar [aOR 1.73, p < 0.001] and occipitocervical [aOR 1.86, p = 0.013] compared with posterior lumbar); short segment length (aOR 1.42, p = 0.016) and midlength (aOR 1.44, p = 0.005) compared with long; and preoperative diagnosis (Scheuermann kyphosis [aOR 1.56, p < 0.017] and spondylolisthesis [aOR 1.93, p < 0.001]).

Conclusions

Use of BMP in pediatric spine procedures now comprises more than 10% of pediatric spinal fusion. Patient-related (age, insurance type, diagnosis); hospital-related (children's hospital vs general hospital, region in the US); and procedure-related (redo fusion, anterior vs posterior approach, spinal levels, number of levels fused) factors are associated with the variation in BMP use in the US.

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Micheal Raad, Andrew B. Harris, Varun Puvanesarajah, Mostafa H. El Dafrawy, Floreana N. Kebaish, Brian J. Neuman, Richard L. Skolasky, David B. Cohen and Khaled M. Kebaish

OBJECTIVE

Patients’ expectations for pain relief are associated with patient-reported outcomes after treatment, although this has not been examined in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD). The aim of this study was to identify associations between patients’ preoperative expectations for pain relief after ASD surgery and patient-reported pain at the 2-year follow-up.

METHODS

The authors analyzed surgically treated ASD patients at a single institution who completed a survey question about expectations for back pain relief. Five ordinal answer choices to “I expect my back pain to improve” were used to categorize patients as having low or high expectations. Back pain was measured using the 10-point numeric rating scale (NRS) and Scoliosis Research Society–22r (SRS-22r) patient survey. Preoperative and postoperative pain were compared using analysis of covariance.

RESULTS

Of 140 ASD patients eligible for 2-year follow-up, 105 patients (77 women) had pre- and postoperative data on patient expectations, 85 of whom had high expectations. The mean patient age was 59 ± 12 years, and 46 patients (44%) had undergone previous spine surgery. The high-expectations and low-expectations groups had similar baseline demographic and clinical characteristics (p > 0.05), except for lower SRS-22r mental health scores in those with low expectations. After controlling for baseline characteristics and mental health, the mean postoperative NRS score was significantly better (lower) in the high-expectations group (3.5 ± 3.5) than in the low-expectations group (5.4 ± 3.7) (p = 0.049). The mean postoperative SRS-22r pain score was significantly better (higher) in the high-expectations group (3.3 ± 1.1) than in the low-expectations group (2.6 ± 0.94) (p = 0.019).

CONCLUSIONS

Despite similar baseline characteristics, patients with high preoperative expectations for back pain relief reported less pain 2 years after ASD surgery than patients with low preoperative expectations.