Sasan Karimi, Viviane Tabar, Eric Lis and Andrei I. Holodny
Bob L. Hou, Andrei I. Holodny, Nathan Cooperman and Philip H. Gutin
✓The authors report a case of reorganization of the cortical control of movement caused by radiation necrosis based on an analysis of functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging data acquired during a finger-tapping paradigm. Radiation necrosis in this patient extended from the parietal lobe anteriorly to the primary motor cortex (PMC), and fMR imaging demonstrated an increase in activation in the ipsilateral supplementary motor area. This is similar to the consequences of invasion by glial tumors into the PMC.
Andrei I. Holodny, Theodore H. Schwartz, Martin Ollenschleger, Wen-Ching Liu and Michael Schulder
Michael Schulder, Joseph A. Maldjian, Wen-Ching Liu, Andrei I. Holodny, Andrew T. Kalnin, In Ki Mun and Peter W. Carmel
Object. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of noninvasive preoperative functional imaging data used in an interactive fashion in the operating room. The authors describe a method of registering preoperative functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging localization of sensorimotor cortex with a frameless stereotactic surgical navigation device.
Methods. The day before surgery, patients underwent blood oxygen level—dependent fMR imaging while performing a finger-tapping motor paradigm. Immediately afterward an anatomical stereotactic MR image was acquired. Raw fMR imaging data were analyzed offline at a separate workstation, and the resulting functional maps were registered to a high-resolution anatomical scan. The fused functional—anatomical images were then downloaded onto a surgical navigation computer via an ethernet connection. At surgery, the brain was exposed in the standard fashion, and the sensorimotor cortex was identified by direct cortical stimulation, the use of somatosensory evoked potentials, or both. This localization was then compared with that predicted by the registered fMR study.
Thirteen procedures were performed in 12 patients. The mean registration error was 2.2 mm. The predicted location of motor and/or sensory cortex matched that found on intraoperative mapping in all 12 patients tested. Maximal tumor resection was accomplished in each case and no new permanent neurological deficits resulted.
Conclusions. Compared with conventional brain mapping techniques, fMR image—guided surgery may allow for smaller brain exposures, localization of the language cortex with the patient under general anesthesia, and the mapping of multiple functional sites. The scanning equipment used in this method may be more readily available than for other functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography or magnetoencephalography.
Nicole Petrovich, Andrei I. Holodny, Viviane Tabar, Denise D. Correa, Joy Hirsch, Philip H. Gutin and Cameron W. Brennan
Object. The goal of this study was to investigate discordance between the location of speech arrest during awake cortical mapping, a common intraoperative indicator of hemispheric dominance, and silent speech functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging maps of frontal language function.
Methods. Twenty-one cases were reviewed retrospectively. Images of silent speech fMR imaging activation were coregistered to anatomical MR images obtained for neuronavigation. These were compared with the intraoperative cortical photographs and the behavioral results of electrocorticography during awake craniotomy. An fMR imaging control study of three healthy volunteers was then conducted to characterize the differences between silent and vocalized speech fMR imaging protocols used for neurosurgical planning.
Conclusions. Results of fMR imaging showed consistent and predominant activation of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during silent speech tasks. During intraoperative mapping, however, 16 patients arrested in the precentral gyrus (PRG), well posterior to the fMR imaging activity. Of those 16, 14 arrested only in the PRG and not in the IFG as silent speech fMR imaging predicted. The control fMR imaging study showed that vocalized speech fMR imaging shifts the location of the fMR imaging prediction to include the motor strip and may be more appropriate for neurosurgical planning.
Andrei I. Holodny, Ajax E. George, Mony J. de Leon, James Golomb, Andrew J. Kalnin and Paul R. Cooper
Object. The authors describe a subgroup of patients with shunt-proven normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) who presented with focal fissural and sulcal dilation on imaging studies. The specific radiological features and methods of differentiating this condition from cortical atrophy are delineated.
Methods. Normal-pressure hydrocephalus has been described as dilation of the ventricles that is out of proportion to the sulci. Sulcal dilation has been taken as evidence of cortical atrophy and has even been used as a criterion to exclude patients from undergoing a shunting procedure. The authors describe five cases of patients with shunt-proven NPH who presented with focal dilation of cortical fissures and sulci. In three of the cases, there was a paradoxical decrease in the size of the dilated fissures and sulci that paralleled the decrease in the size of the lateral ventricles following successful shunting.
Conclusions. This study demonstrates that focal fissural and sulcal dilation may represent reservoirs of cerebrospinal fluid analogous to the ventricular system. Patients should not be denied a shunting procedure solely on the basis of focally dilated fissures of sulci.
Eric Lis, Atin Saha, Kyung K. Peck, Joan Zatcky, Michael J. Zelefsky, Yoshiya Yamada, Andrei I. Holodny, Mark H. Bilsky and Sasan Karimi
High-dose image-guided radiation therapy (HD IGRT) has been instrumental in mitigating some limitations of conventional RT. The recent emergence of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI to investigate tumor physiology can be used to verify the response of human tumors to HD IGRT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near-immediate effects of HD IGRT on spine metastases through the use of DCE MRI perfusion studies.
Six patients with spine metastases from prostate, thyroid, and renal cell carcinoma who underwent HD IGRT were studied using DCE MRI prior to and 1 hour after HD IGRT. The DCE perfusion parameters plasma volume (Vp) and vascular permeability (Ktrans) were measured to assess the near-immediate and long-term tumor response. A Mann-Whitney U-test was performed to compare significant changes (at p ≤ 0.05) in perfusion parameters before and after RT.
The authors observed a precipitous drop in Vp within 1 hour of HD IGRT, with a mean decrease of 65.2%. A significant difference was found between Vp values for before and 1 hour after RT (p ≤ 0.05). No significant change was seen in Vp (p = 0.31) and Ktrans (p = 0.1) from 1 hour after RT to the first follow-up.
The data suggest that there is an immediate effect of HD IGRT on the vascularity of spine metastases, as demonstrated by a precipitous decrease in Vp. The DCE MRI studies can detect such changes within 1 hour after RT, and findings are concordant with existing animal models.