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Pedram Maleknia, Ashritha Reddy Chalamalla, Anastasia Arynchyna-Smith, Leon Dure, Donna Murdaugh, and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

Little is known about the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with hydrocephalus. In this study, the authors assessed the prevalence of ADHD and its association with clinical and demographic factors, including intellectual disability (ID), a potential factor that can confound the diagnosis of ADHD.

METHODS

The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of children 6–12 years of age with hydrocephalus using parent telephone surveys. The Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire (CAIDS-Q) and the National Institute for Children’s Health Quality (NICHQ) Vanderbilt Assessment Scale were used to screen for ID and ADHD, respectively. Among children without ID, the authors identified those with ADHD and calculated a prevalence estimate and 95% confidence interval (Wald method). Logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare children with ADHD with those without ADHD based on demographics, family income, parental educational, etiology of hydrocephalus, and primary treatment. As a secondary analysis, the authors compared subjects with ID with those without using the same variables. Multivariable analysis was used to identify factors with independent association with ADHD and ID.

RESULTS

A total of 147 primary caregivers responded to the telephone questionnaire. Seventy-two children (49%) met the cutoff score for ID (CAIDS-Q). The presence of ID was significantly associated with lower family income (p < 0.001). Hydrocephalus etiology (p = 0.051) and initial treatment (p = 0.06) approached significance. Of children without ID (n = 75), 25 demonstrated a likely diagnosis of ADHD on the NICHQ, yielding a prevalence estimate of 0.33 (95% CI 0.22–0.44). No clinical or demographic variable showed significant association with ADHD.

CONCLUSIONS

These data indicate that the prevalence of ADHD among children with hydrocephalus (33%) is higher than among the general population (estimated prevalence in Alabama is 12.5%). ID is also common (49%). Routine screening for ADHD and ID in children with hydrocephalus may help to ensure that adequate resources are provided to optimize functional outcomes across development.

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Elizabeth N Alford, Travis J Atchley, Tofey J Leon, Nicholas M. B Laskay, Anastasia A Arynchyna, Burkely P Smith, Inmaculada Aban, James M Johnston, Jeffrey P Blount, Curtis J Rozzelle, W. Jerry Oakes, and Brandon G Rocque

OBJECTIVE

In Chiari malformation type I (CM-I), a variety of imaging findings have been purported to be important; however, results have been inconclusive, inconsistent, or not replicated in independent studies. The purpose of this study was to report imaging characteristics for a large cohort of patients with CM-I and identify the imaging findings associated with surgical decompression.

METHODS

Patients were identified using ICD-9 codes for CM-I for the period from 1996 to 2017. After review of the medical records, patients were excluded if they 1) did not have a diagnosis of CM-I, 2) were not evaluated by a neurosurgeon, or 3) did not have available preoperative MRI. Retrospective chart review was performed to collect demographic and clinical data. Imaging parameters were measured according to the Chiari I Malformation Common Data Elements.

RESULTS

A total of 731 patients were included for analysis, having a mean follow-up duration of 25.5 months. The mean age at presentation was 8.5 years. The mean tonsil position was 11.4 mm below the foramen magnum, and 62.8% of patients had a pegged tonsil shape. Two hundred patients (27.4%) underwent surgery for life-dominating tussive headache, lower cranial nerve dysfunction, syrinx, and/or brainstem dysfunction. Surgical treatment was associated with a syrinx (OR 20.4, 95% CI 12.3–33.3, p < 0.0001), CM-1.5 (OR 1.797, 95% CI 1.08–2.98, p = 0.023), lower tonsil position (OR 1.130, 95% CI 1.08–1.18, p < 0.0001), and congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae (OR 5.473, 95% CI 1.08–27.8, p = 0.040). Among patients with benign CM-I, tonsil position was statistically significantly associated with future surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

Comprehensive imaging characteristics for a large cohort of patients with CM-I are reported. Analysis showed that a lower tonsillar position, a syrinx, and CM-1.5 were associated with undergoing posterior fossa decompression. This study demonstrates the importance of considering imaging findings in the context of patient symptomatology.

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Tofey J. Leon, Elizabeth N. Kuhn, Anastasia A. Arynchyna, Burkely P. Smith, R. Shane Tubbs, James M. Johnston, Jeffrey P. Blount, Curtis J. Rozzelle, W. Jerry Oakes, and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

There are sparse published data on the natural history of “benign” Chiari I malformation (CM-I)—i.e., Chiari with minimal or no symptoms at presentation and no imaging evidence of syrinx, hydrocephalus, or spinal cord signal abnormality. The purpose of this study was to review a large cohort of children with benign CM-I and to determine whether these children become symptomatic and require surgical treatment.

METHODS

Patients were identified from institutional outpatient records using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, diagnosis codes for CM-I from 1996 to 2016. After review of the medical records, patients were excluded if they 1) did not have a diagnosis of CM-I, 2) were not evaluated by a neurosurgeon, 3) had previously undergone posterior fossa decompression, or 4) had imaging evidence of syringomyelia at their first appointment. To include only patients with benign Chiari (without syrinx or classic Chiari symptoms that could prompt immediate intervention), any patient who underwent decompression within 9 months of initial evaluation was excluded. After a detailed chart review, patients were excluded if they had classical Chiari malformation symptoms at presentation. The authors then determined what changes in the clinical picture prompted surgical treatment. Patients were excluded from the multivariate logistic regression analysis if they had missing data such as race and insurance; however, these patients were included in the overall survival analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 427 patients were included for analysis with a median follow-up duration of 25.5 months (range 0.17–179.1 months) after initial evaluation. Fifteen patients had surgery at a median time of 21.0 months (range 11.3–139.3 months) after initial evaluation. The most common indications for surgery were tussive headache in 5 (33.3%), syringomyelia in 5 (33.3%), and nontussive headache in 5 (33.3%). Using the Kaplan-Meier method, rate of freedom from posterior fossa decompression was 95.8%, 94.1%, and 93.1% at 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Among a large cohort of patients with benign CM-I, progression of imaging abnormalities or symptoms that warrant surgical treatment is infrequent. Therefore, these patients should be managed conservatively. However, clinical follow-up of such individuals is justified, as there is a low, but nonzero, rate of new symptom or syringomyelia development. Future analyses will determine whether imaging or clinical features present at initial evaluation are associated with progression and future need for treatment.

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Anastasia Arynchyna-Smith, Curtis J. Rozzelle, Hailey Jensen, Ron W. Reeder, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Ian F. Pollack, John C. Wellons III, Robert P. Naftel, Eric M. Jackson, William E. Whitehead, Jonathan A. Pindrik, David D. Limbrick Jr., Patrick J. McDonald, Mandeep S. Tamber, Brent R. O’Neill, Jason S. Hauptman, Mark D. Krieger, Jason Chu, Tamara D. Simon, Jay Riva-Cambrin, John R. W. Kestle, Brandon G. Rocque, and

OBJECTIVE

Primary treatment of hydrocephalus with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and choroid plexus cauterization (CPC) is well described in the neurosurgical literature, with wide reported ranges of success and complication rates. The purpose of this study was to describe the safety and efficacy of ETV revision after initial ETV+CPC failure.

METHODS

Prospectively collected data in the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network Core Data Project registry were reviewed. Children who underwent ETV+CPC as the initial treatment for hydrocephalus between 2013 and 2019 and in whom the initial ETV+CPC was completed (i.e., not abandoned) were included. Log-rank survival analysis (the primary analysis) was used to compare time to failure (defined as any other surgical treatment for hydrocephalus or death related to hydrocephalus) of initial ETV+CPC versus that of ETV revision by using random-effects modeling to account for the inclusion of patients in both the initial and revision groups. Secondary analysis compared ETV revision to shunt placement after failure of initial ETV+CPC by using the log-rank test, as well as shunt failure after ETV+CPC to that after ETV revision. Cox regression analysis was used to identify predictors of failure among children treated with ETV revision.

RESULTS

The authors identified 521 ETV+CPC procedures that met their inclusion criteria. Ninety-one children underwent ETV revision after ETV+CPC failure. ETV revision had a lower 1-year success rate than initial ETV+CPC (29.5% vs 45%, p < 0.001). ETV revision after initial ETV+CPC failure had a lower success rate than shunting (29.5% vs 77.8%, p < 0.001). Shunt survival after initial ETV+CPC failure was not significantly different from shunt survival after ETV revision failure (p = 0.963). Complication rates were similar for all examined surgical procedures (initial ETV+CPC, ETV revision, ventriculoperitoneal shunt [VPS] placement after ETV+CPC, and VPS placement after ETV revision). Only young age was predictive of ETV revision failure (p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

ETV revision had a significantly lower 1-year success rate than initial ETV+CPC and VPS placement after ETV+CPC. Complication rates were similar for all studied procedures. Younger age, but not time since initial ETV+CPC, was a risk factor for ETV revision failure.