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Jonathan A. Grossberg, Brian M. Howard, and Amit M. Saindane

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has long been the imaging gold standard in the evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of cerebro- and spinovascular disorders. However, DSA has the disadvantages of invasiveness, contrast allergy or nephropathy, the impracticality of procedural preparation and recovery, and expense. Contrast-enhanced (CE), time-resolved (TR) magnetic resonance angiography (CE TR-MRA) is a sophisticated, relatively novel imaging modality that provides multiphasic contrast-enhanced visualization of the neurovasculature. Given the crucial role of angiography in all aspects of care for patients with complex neurovascular disorders, it is incumbent on those who care for these patients to understand the usefulness and pitfalls of novel imaging in this arena to ensure best practices, and to deliver cutting edge care to these patients in a way that minimizes cost, but does not compromise quality. CE TR-MRA has the potential to play an expanded role in the workup and follow-up across the spectrum of neurovascular disease, and this review is aimed to help neurosurgeons better understand how CE TR-MRA can be used to better manage patients in this cohort.

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Joshua W. Osbun, Ralph G. Dacey Jr., Daniel L. Barrow, Amit M. Saindane, and Christopher Nimsky

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Christopher W. Rich, Rebecca E. Fasano, Faical Isbaine, Amit M. Saindane, Deqiang Qiu, Daniel J. Curry, Robert E. Gross, and Jon T. Willie


Several small series have described stereotactic MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy for partial callosotomy of astatic and generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures, especially in association with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Larger case series and comparison of distinct stereotactic methods for stereotactic laser corpus callosotomy (SLCC), however, are currently lacking. The objective of this study was to report seizure outcomes in a series of adult patients with epilepsy following anterior, posterior, and complete SLCC procedures and to compare the results achieved with a frameless stereotactic surgical robot versus direct MRI guidance frames.


The authors retrospectively reviewed sequential adult epilepsy surgery patients who underwent SLCC procedures at a single institution. They describe workflows, stereotactic errors, percentage disconnection, hospitalization durations, adverse events, and seizure outcomes after performing anterior, posterior, and complete SLCC procedures using a frameless stereotactic surgical robot versus direct MRI guidance platforms.


Thirteen patients underwent 15 SLCC procedures. The median age at surgery was 29 years (range 20–49 years), the median duration of epilepsy was 21 years (range 9–48 years), and median postablation follow-up was 20 months (range 4–44 months). Ten patients underwent anterior SLCC with a median 73% (range 33%–80%) midsagittal length of callosum acutely ablated. Following anterior SLCC, 6 of 10 patients achieved meaningful (> 50%) reduction of target seizures. Four patients underwent posterior (completion) SLCC following prior anterior callosotomy, and 1 patient underwent complete SLCC as a single procedure; 3 of these 5 patients experienced meaningful reduction of target seizures. Overall, 8 of 10 patients in whom astatic seizures were targeted and treated by anterior and/or posterior SLCC experienced meaningful improvement. SLCC procedures with direct MRI guidance (n = 7) versus a frameless surgical robot (n = 8) yielded median radial accuracies of 1.1 mm (range 0.2–2.0 mm) versus 2.4 mm (range 0.6–6.1 mm; p = 0.0011). The most serious adverse event was a clinically significant intraparenchymal hemorrhage in a patient who underwent the robotic technique.


This is the largest reported series of SLCC for epilepsy to date. SLCC provides seizure outcomes comparable to open surgery outcomes reported in the literature. Direct MRI guidance is more accurate, which has the potential to reduce the risks of SLCC. Methodological advancements and larger studies are needed.