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Amir R. Dehdashti

A 29-year-old woman is diagnosed with a large broad-base right ophthalmic artery aneurysm. Despite an intact visual field, she complained of mild right visual blurriness. Between endovascular and surgical treatments, surgery was favored due to her young age. It was decided to perform the surgery with simultaneous endovascular temporary carotid balloon occlusion. A right pterional craniotomy and intradural anterior clinoidectomy were performed, the balloon was positioned in the petrous carotid, and the distal durai ring was opened exposing the proximal neck. Under temporary proximal carotid balloon occlusion and distal carotid clip occlusion, the aneurysm was fully dissected and clipped. Intraoperative angiogram confirmed complete aneurysm occlusion and patency of the ophthalmic artery. The patient's neurological exam remained unchanged.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/BIQKTl9bDqA.

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Amir R. Dehdashti

Ruptured aneurysms with intraparenchymal hematoma and mass effect are primarily treated by surgical clipping. In this video presentation, a 68 year old male with a large ruptured right ICA bifurcation aneurysm is presented. Patient's neurological exam was rapidly deteriorating, therefore the patient was transferred to the operating theater after initial evaluation by CT and CT angiogram. A pterional craniotomy was performed, the frontal hematoma was partially removed and the aneurysm was clipped. Residual hematoma was removed after securing the aneurysm and the aneurysm dome was punctured(detail of surgical clipping in the video). Patient made a good recovery at 2 weeks post-op with complete recovery of left sided weakness, and some remaining cognitive deficit.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/dKFWptdgC4M.

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Amrit Chiluwal and Amir R. Dehdashti

Grade III Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a distinct subgroup of brain AVMs. Their variety in terms of location, type of venous drainage, and size makes them the most heterogenous group in the AVM classification. The surgical risk of treatment is also variable depending on the specifics of a given Grade III AVM. In this video illustration, the authors describe the technical nuances of surgical resection of a very complex Grade III left posterior temporal AVM. According to supplementary grading, the unruptured aspect and patient age give this lesion a Grade III; therefore, the combined grading gives the patient a score of 6, which puts him at moderate risk of morbidity for surgery. The indication for surgery was based on the patient’s young age, lifetime risk of hemorrhage, and the location of the AVM in the left inferior/posterior temporal gyrus.

The patient underwent 2 sessions of preoperative embolization of the posterior cerebral artery and the external carotid artery feeders prior to craniotomy. The day after the second embolization, the patient was operated on via a posterior temporobasal craniotomy. The dural supply attached to the draining vein was left intact during the dural exposure. The detail of the AVM resection is described in the video clip. A total resection was achieved, and the patient’s neurological examination was intact after the procedure.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/fj5Cxw3kpXQ.

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Giorgio Carrabba, Amir R. Dehdashti and Fred Gentili

Object

Clival lesions pose significant challenges with regard to their surgical management. The expanded endoscopic endonasal (EEE) approach is a promising minimally invasive technique for lesions of the central skull base. The authors' aim in the current paper was to discuss the surgical treatment of clival lesions and to present the technical details, indications, and limitations of the EEE approach. Data from a recent endoscopically treated group will be compared with findings in a previous cohort of patients treated via classic open anterior and lateral approaches.

Methods

Since June 2005, 17 patients with clival lesions underwent surgery via the EEE approach. Suitable candidates were chosen according to lesion characteristics, clinical parameters, and surgical goals. Neurological outcomes, Karnofsky Performance Scale scores, the extent of lesion resection, and complications were evaluated among these patients. Eighteen percent of the patients in the endoscopic group presented with recurrent disease. Another series of 43 patients, who had undergone resection of clival lesions via an anterior (rhinotomy, maxillectomy, microscopic transsphenoidal surgery, or transoral surgery) or lateral (pterional, frontoorbitozygomatic, or combined suprainfratentorial retrosigmoid) approach, was similarly reviewed. Twenty-three of these patients (53%) presented with recurrent disease and thus had undergone prior surgery.

Results

Following the EEE approach, 11 (79%) of 14 patients who had presented with neurological symptoms experienced improvement, and gross-total resection was achieved in 59% of the patients and subtotal removal in 41%. Complications included CSF leakage (24%), tension pneumocephalus (6%), and intracranial hematoma (6%). The patient with the latter complication was the only one who experienced permanent neurological worsening. In the open resection group, neurological worsening occurred in 33% of the patients (14 of 43). Total and grosstotal removals were achieved in 84% of patients and subtotal removal in 14%.

Conclusions

The EEE approach has been shown to be a safe and effective technique for the resection of clival lesions with limited lateral extension. The choice of surgical approach must be tailored according to both patient and tumor characteristics. Although the 2 patient series featured in this paper are not comparable—because of a selection bias—higher rates of neurological morbidity and total and gross-total resections were observed in the open resection group. Given the long survival of some patients, the EEE approach should be favored whenever reasonable.

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Georgios Klironomos and Amir R. Dehdashti

Tuberculum sella meningiomas can be approached through lateral approaches including pterional/orbitozygomatic craniotomies, frontobasal craniotomy, or through expanded endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches. The authors present the case of a 60-year-old male who presented with bitemporal hemianopia and significant right-side visual acuity compromise due to a large tuberculum sella meningioma. The tumor had an important extension to the posterior fossa. A right orbitozygomatic trans-sylvian approach was deemed most suitable to tackle the posterior extension of the tumor. Some operative nuances are detailed in the video including dissection of the tumor off the carotid artery, basilar bifurcation, and small thalamoperforators attached to the tumor. Postoperatively, the patient’s bilateral hemianopia improved significantly, but his right visual activity remained unchanged. The remaining part of the tumor in the sella and midclivus was addressed with a second-stage expanded endoscopic transclival approach.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/KbewhlT2FWs.

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Leodante da Costa, Amir R. Dehdashti and Karel G. terBrugg E

Object

Spinal cord vascular malformations are rare, fascinating lesions. In this paper, the authors' goal was to demonstrate how these lesions, more specifically spinal cord arteriovenous malformations and dural arteriovenous fistulas, are assessed, classified, and managed at their institution. They also highlight some aspects of classification and management that may be different from the views of others.

Methods

The authors reviewed the 20-year experience at the senior author's institution regarding the management of spinal cord vascular malformations. They discuss the management, surgical and endovascular treatment results, and the classification that resulted from the combined experience of 3 major reference centers.

Results

The accumulated knowledge on embryological and pathophysiological aspects in such a rare disease resulted in a more global, patient-oriented (and not radiologically oriented) approach to spinal cord shunts.

Conclusions

The multiple classifications proposed for spinal cord vascular malformations reflect the continuous advancement of the authors' understanding. They adopt a classification based on new physiological and genetic data that treats these lesions as expressions of more complex disease processes and not simply a morphological target, with direct impact on therapeutic options.

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Amir R. Dehdashti, Stefano Binaghi, Antoine Uske and Luca Regli

Object

In this study the accuracy of multislice computerized tomography (MSCT) angiography in the postoperative examination of clip-occluded intracranial aneurysms was compared with that of intraarterial digital subtraction (DS) angiography

Methods

Forty-nine consecutive patients with 60 clipped aneurysms (41 of which had ruptured) were studied with the aid of postoperative MSCT and DS angiography. Both types of radiological studies were reviewed independently by two observers to assess the quality of the images, the artifacts left by the clips, the completeness of aneurysm occlusion, the patency of the parent vessel, and the duration and cost of the examination.

The quality of MSCT angiography was good in 42 patients (86%). Poor-quality MSCT angiograms (14%) were a result of the late acquisition of images in three patients and the presence of clip or motion artifacts in four. Occlusion of the aneurysm on good-quality MSCT angiograms was confirmed in all but two patients in whom a small (2-mm) remnant was confirmed on DS angiograms. In one patient, occlusion of a parent vessel was seen on DS angiograms but missed on MSCT angiograms. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting neck remnants on MSCT angiography were both 100%, and the sensitivity and specificity for evaluating vessel patency were 80 and 100%, respectively (95% confidence interval 29.2–100%). Interobserver agreements were 0.765 and 0.86, respectively. The mean duration of the examination was 13 minutes for MSCT angiography and 75 minutes for DS angiography (p < 0.05). Multislice CT angiography was highly cost effective (p < 0.01).

Conclusions

Current-generation MSCT angiography is an accurate noninvasive tool used for assessment of clipped aneurysms in the anterior circulation. Its high sensitivity and low cost warrant its use for postoperative routine control examinations following clip placement on an aneurysm. Digital subtraction angiography must be performed if the interpretation of MSCT angiograms is doubtful or if the aneurysm is located in the posterior circulation.

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Amir R. Dehdashti and Fred Gentili

Object

Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is the primary therapy for Cushing disease because of its potential to produce lasting remission without the need for long-term drug or hormone replacement therapy. The authors evaluated the current role of pure endoscopic endonasal pituitary surgery in the treatment of Cushing disease.

Methods

Twenty-five patients underwent pure endoscopic surgery for confirmed Cushing disease. Thirteen patients had microadenomas and seven had macroadenomas; magnetic resonance images obtained in five patients were only suspicious or nondiagnostic, and thus they underwent inferior petrosal sinus sampling. Two patients had evidence of cavernous sinus involvement. Final histological results were consistent with adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)–secreting adenoma in 20 patients.

Results

Twenty patients (80%) had clinical remission and laboratory confirmation of hypocortisolemia (serum cortisol < 100 nmol/L requiring substitution therapy), suppression to low-dose dexamethasone, and normal 24-hour urinary free cortisol. The median follow-up period was 17 months (range 3–32 months). There was no recurrence at the time of the last follow-up. Three patients presented with new anterior pituitary deficiency, but no one had permanent diabetes insipidus. In one patient a cerebrospinal fluid leak developed but later resolved following lumbar drainage. Treatment failure was attributable to involvement of the cavernous sinus in two patients, incomplete tumor removal in one, negative exploration in one, and nodular corticotroph hyperplasia of the pituitary gland in one.

Conclusions

Early results indicated that endoscopic endonasal surgery is a safe and effective treatment for ACTH-producing adenomas. The rate of remission in this study is comparable to those in previous series, and the rate of major postoperative complications is extremely low. Further studies with a larger number of patients and longer follow-ups are required to determine whether this more minimally invasive pure endoscopic approach should become the standard of care for the surgical treatment of Cushing disease.

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Jacob Januszewski, Jeffrey S. Beecher, David J. Chalif and Amir R. Dehdashti

Object

Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography has been established as a noninvasive technique to gauge the patency of a bypass graft; however, intraoperative graft patency may not always correlate with graft flow. Altered flow through the bypass graft may directly cause delayed graft occlusion. Here, the authors report on 3 types of flow that were observed through cerebral revascularization procedures.

Methods

Between February 2009 and September 2013, 48 bypass procedures were performed. Excluded from analysis were those cases in which ICG videoangiography was not performed during surgery (whether it was not available or there was a technical issue with the microscope or the quality of ICG angiography) and/or in which angiography or CT angiography was not done within 24–72 hours after surgery. After anastomosis, bypass patency was assessed first using a noninvasive technique and then with ICG videoangiography, and flow through the graft was characterized. Patients who received a vein or radial artery graft were also evaluated with intraoperative angiography.

Results

Thirty-three patients eligible for analysis were retrospectively analyzed. The patients had undergone extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) or IC-IC bypass for ischemic stroke (13 patients), moyamoya disease (10 patients), and complex aneurysms (10 patients; 6 giant or large aneurysms, 2 carotid blister-like aneurysms, and 2 dissecting posterior inferior cerebellar artery [PICA] aneurysms). Thirty-six bypasses were performed including 26 superficial temporal artery (STA)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypasses (2 bilateral and 1 double-barrel), 6 EC-IC vein grafts, 1 EC-IC radial artery graft, 1 PICA-PICA bypass, 1 MCA–posterior cerebral artery bypass, and 1 occipital artery–PICA bypass. Robust anterograde flow (Type I) was noted in 31 grafts (86%). Delayed but patent graft enhancement and anterograde flow (Type II) was observed in 4 cases (11%); 1 of these cases with an EC-IC vein graft degraded gradually to very delayed flow with no continuity to the bypass site (Type III). Additionally, 1 STA-MCA bypass graft revealed no convincing flow (Type III).

The 5 patients with Type II or III grafts were evaluated with a flow probe and reexploration of the bypass site, and in all cases the reason the graft became occluded was believed to be recipient-vessel competitive flow. In no case was there evidence of stenosis or a technical issue at the site of the anastomosis. Three patients with Type II and the 1 patient with Type III flow (11% of procedures) did not have a patent bypass on postoperative imaging.

Conclusions

Indocyanine green videoangiography is reliable for evaluating flow through the EC-IC or IC-IC bypass. The type of flow observed through the graft has a direct relationship with postoperative imaging findings. Despite the possibility of competitive flow, Type III and some Type II flows through the graft indicate the need for graft evaluation and anastomosis exploration.

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Susanna Bacigaluppi, Amir R. Dehdashti, Ronit Agid, Timo Krings, Michael Tymianski and David J. Mikulis

The aim of this review was to evaluate the imaging tools used in diagnosis and perioperative assessment of moyamoya disease, with particular attention to the last decade.