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  • Author or Editor: Amanda N. Stanton x
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Andrew T. Hale, Amanda N. Stanton, Shilin Zhao, Faizal Haji, Stephen R. Gannon, Anastasia Arynchyna, John C. Wellons, Brandon G. Rocque and Robert P. Naftel

OBJECTIVE

At failure of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with choroid plexus cauterization (CPC), the ETV ostomy may be found to be closed or open. Failure with a closed ostomy may indicate a population that could benefit from evolving techniques to keep the ostomy open and may be candidates for repeat ETV, whereas failure with an open ostomy may be due to persistently abnormal CSF dynamics. This study seeks to identify clinical and radiographic predictors of ostomy status at the time of ETV/CPC failure.

METHODS

The authors conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study on all pediatric patients with hydrocephalus who failed initial ETV/CPC treatment between January 2013 and October 2016. Failure was defined as the need for repeat ETV or ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement. Clinical and radiographic data were collected, and ETV ostomy status was determined endoscopically at the subsequent hydrocephalus procedure. Statistical analysis included the Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, t-test, and Pearson chi-square test where appropriate, as well as multivariate logistic regression.

RESULTS

Of 72 ETV/CPC failures, 28 patients (39%) had open-ostomy failure and 44 (61%) had closed-ostomy failure. Patients with open-ostomy failure were older (median 5.1 weeks corrected age for gestation [interquartile range (IQR) 0.9–15.9 weeks]) than patients with closed-ostomy failure (median 0.2 weeks [IQR −1.3 to 4.5 weeks]), a significant difference by univariate and multivariate regression. Etiologies of hydrocephalus included intraventricular hemorrhage of prematurity (32%), myelomeningocele (29%), congenital communicating (11%), aqueductal stenosis (11%), cyst/tumor (4%), and other causes (12%). A wider baseline third ventricle was associated with open-ostomy failure (median 15.0 mm [IQR 10.3–18.5 mm]) compared to closed-ostomy failure (median 11.7 mm [IQR 8.9–16.5 mm], p = 0.048). Finally, at the time of failure, patients with closed-ostomy failure had enlargement of their ventricles (frontal and occipital horn ratio [FOHR], failure vs baseline, median 0.06 [IQR 0.00–0.11]), while patients with open-ostomy failure had no change in ventricle size (median 0.01 [IQR −0.04 to 0.05], p = 0.018). Previous CSF temporizing procedures, intraoperative bleeding, and time to failure were not associated with ostomy status at ETV/CPC failure.

CONCLUSIONS

Older corrected age for gestation, larger baseline third ventricle width, and no change in FOHR were associated with open-ostomy ETV/CPC failure. Future studies are warranted to further define and confirm features that may be predictive of ostomy status at the time of ETV/CPC failure.

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Andrew T. Hale, Stephen R. Gannon, Shilin Zhao, Michael C. Dewan, Ritwik Bhatia, Michael Bezzerides, Amanda N. Stanton, Robert P. Naftel, Chevis N. Shannon, Sumit Pruthi and John C. Wellons III

OBJECTIVE

The authors aimed to evaluate clinical, radiological, and surgical factors associated with posterior fossa tumor resection (PFTR)–related outcomes, including postoperative complications related to dural augmentation (CSF leak and wound infection), persistent hydrocephalus ultimately requiring permanent CSF diversion after PFTR, and 90-day readmission rate.

METHODS

Pediatric patients (0–17 years old) undergoing PFTR between 2000 and 2016 at Monroe Carell Jr. Children’s Hospital of Vanderbilt University were retrospectively reviewed. Descriptive statistics included the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare means that were nonnormally distributed and the chi-square test for categorical variables. Variables that were nominally associated (p < 0.05) with each outcome by univariate analysis were included as covariates in multivariate linear regression models. Statistical significance was set a priori at p < 0.05.

RESULTS

The cohort consisted of 186 patients with a median age at surgery of 6.62 years (range 3.37–11.78 years), 55% male, 83% Caucasian, and average length of follow-up of 3.87 ± 0.25 years. By multivariate logistic regression, the variables primary dural closure (PDC; odds ratio [OR] 8.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–100, p = 0.04), pseudomeningocele (OR 7.43, 95% CI 2.23–23.76, p = 0.0007), and hydrocephalus ultimately requiring permanent CSF diversion within 90 days of PFTR (OR 9.25, 95% CI 2.74–31.2, p = 0.0003) were independently associated with CSF leak. PDC versus graft dural closure (GDC; 35% vs 7%, OR 5.88, 95% CI 2.94–50.0, p = 0.03) and hydrocephalus ultimately requiring permanent CSF diversion (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.07–10.19, p = 0.0007) were associated with wound infection requiring surgical debridement. By multivariate logistic regression, GDC versus PDC (23% vs 37%, OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02–0.87, p = 0.04) was associated with persistent hydrocephalus ultimately requiring permanent CSF diversion, whereas pre- or post-PFTR ventricular size, placement of peri- or intraoperative extraventricular drain (EVD), and radiation therapy were not. Furthermore, the addition of perioperative EVD placement and dural closure method to a previously validated predictive model of post-PFTR hydrocephalus improved its performance from area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.69 to 0.74. Lastly, the authors found that autologous (vs synthetic) grafts may be protective against persistent hydrocephalus (p = 0.02), but not CSF leak, pseudomeningocele, or wound infection.

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggest that GDC, independent of potential confounding factors, may be protective against CSF leak, wound infection, and hydrocephalus in patients undergoing PFTR. Additional studies are warranted to further evaluate clinical and surgical factors impacting PFTR-associated complications.