Amadé Bregy, Alex Alfieri, Stefanos Demertzis, Pasquale Mordasini, Anna Katharina Jetzer, Dominique Kuhlen, Thomas Schaffner, Ralph Dacey, Hans-Jakob Steiger and Michael Reinert
The treatment of complex cerebrovascular or skull base pathological conditions necessitates a microsurgical blood flow preservation or augmentative revascularization procedure as either an adjunctive safety measure or a definitive treatment. The brain is susceptible to ischemia, and procedure-related risks can be minimized by the reduction of occlusion time or the use of a nonocclusive technique. The authors therefore analyzed the feasibility of an automatic device (C-Port xA, Cardica) designed for constructing an end-to-side anastomosis with or without flow interruption for a middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass in a human cadaveric model and in an in vivo craniotomy simulation model.
Four Thiel-fixated human head specimens were prepared using 8 standard pterional craniotomies. The sylvian fissure was opened to access the anterior circulation and in particular the MCA. The length of the individual vessel segments was measured. The C-Port xA was tested on each of the 8 exposures. In addition the C-Port xA was deployed in an in vivo craniotomy simulator model in 10 New Zealand rabbits (a total of 20 anastomoses) by using the abdominal aorta jump graft model.
Short-term patency was assessed by angiography and histological findings. In all 8 sylvian exposures, construction of an MCA anastomosis with the aid of the C-Port xA was feasible. All 20 jump graft anastomoses performed in the in vivo craniotomy simulator were found to be patent.
The anatomical studies as well as the in vivo craniotomy simulation studies demonstrated that the dimensions of the automated end-to-side anastomosis device are suitable for an extracranial–intracranial high-flow bypass on the MCA. Further miniaturization and special adaptation of this device would allow bypass procedures to more proximal intracranial vessels.
Ashish H. Shah, Neal Patel, Daniel M. S. Raper, Amade Bregy, Ramsey Ashour, Mohamed Samy Elhammady, Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan, Jacques J. Morcos, Roberto C. Heros and Ricardo J. Komotar
As endovascular techniques have become more advanced, preoperative embolization has become an increasingly used intervention in the management of meningiomas. To date, however, no consensus has been reached on the use of this technique. To clarify the role of preoperative embolization in the management of meningiomas, the authors conducted a systematic review of case reports, case series, and prospective studies to increase the current understanding of the management options for these common lesions and complications associated with preoperative embolization.
A PubMed search was performed to include all relevant studies in which the management of intracranial meningiomas with preoperative embolization was reported. Immediate complications of embolization were reported as major (sustained) or minor (transient) deficits, death, or no neurological deficits.
A total of 36 studies comprising 459 patients were included in the review. Among patients receiving preoperative embolization for meningiomas, 4.6% (n = 21) sustained complications as a direct result of embolization. Of the 21 patients with embolization-induced complications, the incidence of major complications was 4.8% (n = 1) and the mortality rate was 9.5% (n = 2).
Preoperative embolization is associated with an added risk for morbidity and mortality. Preoperative embolization may be associated with significant complications, but careful selection of ideal cases for embolization may help reduce any added morbidity with this procedure. Although not analyzed in the authors' study, embolization may still reduce rates of surgical morbidity and mortality and therefore may still have a potential benefit for selected patients. Future prospective studies involving the use of preoperative embolization in certain cases of meningiomas may further elucidate its potential benefit and risks.