M. Necmettin Pamir, Koray Özduman, Erdem Yıldız, Aydın Sav and Alp Dinçer
The authors had previously shown that 3-T intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) detects residual tumor tissue during low-grade glioma and that it helps to increase the extent of resection. In a proportion of their cases, however, the ioMRI disclosed T2-hyperintense areas at the tumor resection border after the initial resection attempt and prompted a differential diagnosis between residual tumor and nontumoral changes. To guide this differential diagnosis the authors used intraoperative long-TE single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (ioMRS) and tested the correlation of these findings with findings from pathological examination of resected tissue.
Patients who were undergoing surgery for hemispheric or insular WHO Grade II gliomas and were found to have T2 changes around the resection cavity at the initial ioMRI were prospectively examined with ioMRS and biopsies were taken from corresponding localizations. In 14 consecutive patients, the ioMRS diagnosis in 20 voxels of interest was tested against the histopathological diagnosis. Intraoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (ioDWI) was also performed, as a part of the routine imaging, to rule out surgically induced changes, which could also appear as T2 hyperintensity.
Presence of tumor was documented in 14 (70%) of the 20 T2-hyperintense areas by histopathological examination. The sensitivity of ioMRS for identifying residual tumor was 85.7%, the specificity was 100%, the positive predictive value was 100%, and the negative predictive value was 75%. The specificity of ioDWI for surgically induced changes was high (100%), but the sensitivity was only 60%.
This is the first clinical series to indicate that ioMRS can be used to differentiate residual tumor from nontumoral changes around the resection cavity, with high sensitivity and specificity.
Koray Özduman, Erdem Yıldız, Alp Dinçer, Aydın Sav and M. Necmettin Pamir
The goal of surgery in high-grade gliomas is to maximize the resection of contrast-enhancing tumor without causing additional neurological deficits. Intraoperative MRI improves surgical results. However, when using contrast material intraoperatively, it may be difficult to differentiate between surgically induced enhancement and residual tumor. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of intraoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI to guide this differential diagnosis and test it against tissue histopathology.
Preoperative and intraoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed in 21 patients with histopathologically confirmed WHO Grade IV gliomas using intraoperative 3-T MRI. Standardized regions of interest (ROIs) were placed manually at 2 separate contrast-enhancing areas at the resection border for each patient. Time-intensity curves (TICs) were generated for each ROI. All ROIs were biopsied and the TIC types were compared with histopathological results. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed in the last 10 patients to confirm nonparametric TIC analysis findings.
Of the 42 manually selected ROIs in 21 patients, 25 (59.5%) contained solid tumor tissue and 17 (40.5%) retained the brain parenchymal architecture but contained infiltrating tumor cells. Time-intensity curves generated from residual contrast-enhancing tumor and their preoperative counterparts were comparable and showed a quick and persistently increasing slope (“climbing type”). All 17 TICs obtained from regions that did not contain solid tumor tissue were undulating and low in amplitude, compared with those obtained from residual tumors (“low-amplitude type”). Pharmacokinetic findings using the transfer constant, extravascular extracellular volume fraction, rate constant, and initial area under the curve parameters were significantly different for the tumor mass, nontumoral regions, and surgically induced contrast-enhancing areas.
Intraoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI provides quick, reproducible, high-quality, and simply interpreted dynamic MR images in the intraoperative setting and can aid in differentiating surgically induced enhancement from residual tumor.
M. Necmettin Pamir, Koray Özduman, Alp Dinçer, Erdem Yildiz, Selçuk Peker and M. Memet Özek
The authors describe the first shared-resource, 3-T intraoperative MR (ioMR) imaging system and analyze its impact on low-grade glioma (LGG) resection with an emphasis on the use of intraoperative proton MR spectroscopy.
The Acibadem University ioMR imaging facility houses a 3-T Siemens Trio system and consists of interconnected but independent MR imaging and surgical suites. Neurosurgery is performed using regular ferromagnetic equipment, and a patient can be transferred to the ioMR imaging system within 1.5 minutes by using a floating table. The ioMR imaging protocol takes < 10 minutes including the transfer, and the authors obtain very high–resolution T2-weighted MR images without the use of intravenous contrast. Functional sequences are performed when needed. A new 5-pin headrest–head coil combination and floating transfer table were specifically designed for this system.
Since the facility became operational in June 2004, 56 LGG resections have been performed using ioMR imaging, and > 19,000 outpatient MR imaging procedures have been conducted. First-look MR imaging studies led to further resection attempts in 37.5% of cases as well as a 32.3% increase in the number of gross-total resections. Intraoperative ultrasonography detected 16% of the tumor remnants. Intraoperative proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion weighted MR imaging were used to differentiate residual tumor tissue from peritumoral parenchymal changes. Functional and diffusion tensor MR imaging sequences were used both pre- and postoperatively but not intraoperatively. No infections or other procedure-related complications were encountered.
This novel, shared-resource, ultrahigh-field, 3-T ioMR imaging system is a cost-effective means of affording a highly capable ioMR imaging system and increases the efficiency of LGG resections.