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Penetrating screwdriver injury to the brainstem

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Almir Ferreira De Andrade, Antonio Nogueira De Almeida, Valéria Marques Figueira Muoio, and Raul Marino Jr.

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Epidural hematomas of the posterior cranial fossa

Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Paulo Henrique Aguiar, Ricardo Jose de Almeida Leme, Mauricio Mandel, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, and Raul Marino Jr.


The authors present their experience in the management of posterior fossa epidural hematoma (PFEDH), which involved an aggressive diagnostic approach with the extensive use of head computerized tomography (CT) scanning.


The authors treated 43 cases of PFEDH in one of the largest health centers in Brazil. Diagnosis was established in all patients with the aid of CT scanning because the clinical manifestations were frequently nonspecific. Cases were stratified by clinical course, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and their radiological status. Based on clinical and radiological parameters the patients underwent surgical or conservative management.


Compared with outcomes reported in the available literature, good outcome was found in this series. This is primarily due to the broad use of CT scanning for diagnostic and observational purposes, which, in the authors' opinion, led to early diagnosis and prompt treatment.

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Intracerebral bullet embolism: a rare cause of ischemic stroke

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Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo, Robson Luis Oliveira de Amorim, Wellingson S. Paiva, Guilherme Lepski, and Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

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Cerebral hemodynamic changes gauged by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in patients with posttraumatic brain swelling treated by surgical decompression

Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Roberto Hirsch, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, and Raul Marino Jr.


The use of decompressive craniectomy has experienced a revival in the previous decade, although its actual benefit on patients’ neurological outcome remains the subject of debate. A better understanding of the intracranial pressure dynamics, as well as of the metabolic and hemodynamic brain processes, may be useful in assessing the effect of this surgery on the pathophysiology of the swollen brain. The aim of this study was to use transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography to examine the hemodynamic changes in the brain after decompressive craniectomy in patients with head injury, in addition to examining the relationship between such hemodynamic changes and the patient’s neurological outcome.


Nineteen patients presenting with traumatic brain swelling and cerebral herniation syndrome who had undergone decompressive craniectomy with dural expansion were studied prospectively. The TCD ultrasonography measurements were performed bilaterally in both the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and in the distal portion of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) immediately prior to and after surgical decompression.

After surgery, the mean blood flow velocity (BFV) rose to 175 ± 209% of preoperative values in the MCA of the operated side, while rising to 132 ± 183% in the contralateral side; the difference between the mean BFV increase in in the MCA of both the decompressed and the opposite side reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). The mean BFV of the extracranial ICA increased to 91 ± 119% in the surgical side and 45 ± 60% in the opposite side. Conversely, the MCA pulsatility index (PI) values decreased, on average, to 33 ± 36% of the preoperative value in the operated side and to 30 ± 34% on the opposite side; the MCA PI value reductions were significantly greater in the decompressed side when compared with the contralateral side (p < 0.05). The PI of the extracranial ICA reduced, on average, to 37 ± 23% of the initial values in the operated side and to 24 ± 34%, contralaterally. No correlation was verified between the neurological outcome and cerebral hemodynamic changes seen on TCD ultrasonography.


Decompressive craniectomy results in a significant elevation of cerebral BFV in most patients with traumatic brain swelling and transtentorial herniation syndrome. The increase in cerebral BFV may also occur in the side opposite the decompressed hemisphere; the cerebral BFV increase is significantly greater in the operated hemisphere than contralaterally. Concomitantly, PI values decrease significantly postoperatively, mainly in the decompressed cerebral hemisphere, indicating reduction in cerebrovascular resistance.

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Letter to the Editor. Endovascular management of epidural hematomas

Raghu Samala, Kanwaljeet Garg, Shweta Kedia, and Guru Dutta Satyarthee

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Smartphone-assisted minimally invasive neurosurgery

Mauricio Mandel, Carlo Emanuel Petito, Rafael Tutihashi, Wellingson Paiva, Suzana Abramovicz Mandel, Fernando Campos Gomes Pinto, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo


Advances in video and fiber optics since the 1990s have led to the development of several commercially available high-definition neuroendoscopes. This technological improvement, however, has been surpassed by the smartphone revolution. With the increasing integration of smartphone technology into medical care, the introduction of these high-quality computerized communication devices with built-in digital cameras offers new possibilities in neuroendoscopy. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of smartphone-endoscope integration in performing different types of minimally invasive neurosurgery.


The authors present a new surgical tool that integrates a smartphone with an endoscope by use of a specially designed adapter, thus eliminating the need for the video system customarily used for endoscopy. The authors used this novel combined system to perform minimally invasive surgery on patients with various neuropathological disorders, including cavernomas, cerebral aneurysms, hydrocephalus, subdural hematomas, contusional hematomas, and spontaneous intracerebral hematomas.


The new endoscopic system featuring smartphone-endoscope integration was used by the authors in the minimally invasive surgical treatment of 42 patients. All procedures were successfully performed, and no complications related to the use of the new method were observed. The quality of the images obtained with the smartphone was high enough to provide adequate information to the neurosurgeons, as smartphone cameras can record images in high definition or 4K resolution. Moreover, because the smartphone screen moves along with the endoscope, surgical mobility was enhanced with the use of this method, facilitating more intuitive use. In fact, this increased mobility was identified as the greatest benefit of the use of the smartphone-endoscope system compared with the use of the neuroendoscope with the standard video set.


Minimally invasive approaches are the new frontier in neurosurgery, and technological innovation and integration are crucial to ongoing progress in the application of these techniques. The use of smartphones with endoscopes is a safe and efficient new method of performing endoscope-assisted neurosurgery that may increase surgeon mobility and reduce equipment costs.