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Michael A. Silva, Alfred P. See, Hormuzdiyar H. Dasenbrock, Nirav J. Patel and Mohammad A. Aziz-Sultan

OBJECTIVE

Patients with paraclinoid aneurysms commonly present with visual impairment. They have traditionally been treated with clipping or coiling, but flow diversion (FD) has recently been introduced as an alternative treatment modality. Although there is still initial aneurysm thrombosis, FD is hypothesized to reduce mass effect, which may decompress the optic nerve when treating patients with visually symptomatic paraclinoid aneurysms. The authors performed a meta-analysis to compare vision outcomes following clipping, coiling, or FD of paraclinoid aneurysms in patients who presented with visual impairment.

METHODS

A systematic literature review was performed using the PubMed and Web of Science databases. Studies published in English between 1980 and 2016 were included if they reported preoperative and postoperative visual function in at least 5 patients with visually symptomatic paraclinoid aneurysms (cavernous segment through ophthalmic segment) treated with clipping, coiling, or FD. Neuroophthalmological assessment was used when reported, but subjective patient reports or objective visual examination findings were also acceptable.

RESULTS

Thirty-nine studies that included a total of 2458 patients (520 of whom presented with visual symptoms) met the inclusion criteria, including 307 visually symptomatic cases treated with clipping (mean follow-up 26 months), 149 treated with coiling (mean follow-up 17 months), and 64 treated with FD (mean follow-up 11 months). Postoperative vision in these patients was classified as improved, unchanged, or worsened compared with preoperative vision. A pooled analysis showed preoperative visual symptoms in 38% (95% CI 28%–50%) of patients with paraclinoid aneurysms. The authors found that vision improved in 58% (95% CI 48%–68%) of patients after clipping, 49% (95% CI 38%–59%) after coiling, and 71% (95% CI 55%–84%) after FD. Vision worsened in 11% (95% CI 7%–17%) of patients after clipping, 9% (95% CI 2%–18%) after coiling, and 5% (95% CI 0%–20%) after FD. New visual deficits were found in patients with intact baseline vision at a rate of 1% (95% CI 0%–3%) for clipping, 0% (95% CI 0%–2%) for coiling, and 0% (95% CI 0%–2%) for FD.

CONCLUSIONS

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis to assess vision outcomes after treatment for paraclinoid aneurysms. The authors found that 38% of patients with these aneurysms presented with visual impairment. These data also demonstrated a high rate of visual improvement after FD without a significant difference in the rate of worsened vision or iatrogenic visual impairment compared with clipping and coiling. These findings suggest that FD is an effective option for treatment of visually symptomatic paraclinoid aneurysms.

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Alfred P. See, Alexander E. Ropper, Daniel L. Underberg, Richard L. Robertson, R. Michael Scott and Edward R. Smith

OBJECT

Moyamoya can cause cerebral ischemia and stroke in Down syndrome (DS) patients. In this study, the authors defined a surgically treated population of patients with DS and moyamoya and compared their clinical presentation, response to surgical treatment, and long-term prognosis with those of the general population of patients with moyamoya but without DS.

METHODS

This study was a retrospective review of a consecutive operative series of moyamoya patients with DS treated at Boston Children’s Hospital from 1985 through 2012.

RESULTS

Thirty-two patients, average age 9.7 years (range 1.8–29.3 years), underwent surgery for moyamoya in association with DS. The majority presented with ischemic symptoms (87% stroke, 42% transient ischemic attacks). Twenty-four patients (75%) had congenital heart disease. Nineteen patients (59%) had bilateral moyamoya on presentation, and 13 presented with unilateral disease, of which 2 progressed to surgery on the opposite side at a later date. Patients were followed for a median of 7.5 years (1–20.2 years) after surgery, with no patients lost to follow-up. Follow-up arteriography demonstrated Matsushima Grade A collaterals in 29 of 39 (74%) hemispheres, Grade B in 5 (13%), and Grade C in 5 (13%).

Complications included postoperative strokes in 2 patients, which occurred within 48 hours of surgery in both; one of these patients had arm weakness and the other confusion (both had recovered completely at follow-up). Seizures occurred in 5 patients perioperatively, including one who had a new seizure disorder related to hypocalcemia.

CONCLUSIONS

Moyamoya disease is a cause of stroke in patients with DS. Both the incidence of preoperative stroke (87% vs 67%) and the average age at diagnosis for children under age 21 (8.4 vs 6.5 years) were greater in patients with DS and moyamoya than in the general moyamoya surgical population, suggesting a possible delay in reaching a correct diagnosis of the cause of cerebral ischemia in the DS patient population. Pial synangiosis provided long-term protection from stroke in all patients treated.

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Matthew T. Bender, Gustavo Pradilla, Sachin Batra, Alfred P. See, Carol James, Carlos A. Pardo, Benjamin S. Carson and Michael Lim

Object

Patients with trigeminal neuralgia due to multiple sclerosis (TN-MS) and idiopathic TN (ITN) who underwent glycerol rhizotomy (GR) and radiofrequency thermocoagulation with glycerol rhizotomy (RFTC-GR) were compared to investigate the effectiveness of these percutaneous ablative procedures in the TN-MS population.

Methods

Between 1998 and 2010, 822 patients with typical TN were evaluated; 63 (8%) had TN-MS and 759 (92%) had ITN. Pain relief comparisons were made between 22 GR procedures in patients with TN-MS and 470 GR procedures in patients with ITN; 50 RFTC-GR procedures in patients with TN-MS and 287 RFTC-GR procedures in patients with ITN were compared. Analysis of time to recurrence included only procedures that achieved complete pain relief without medications.

Results

After 15 of the GR procedures (68%) in patients with TN-MS and 315 of the procedures (67%) in those with ITN, the patients were pain free without medications (p = 0.736). After 36 of the RFTC-GR procedures (72%) in patients with TN-MS and 210 of the procedures (73%) in those with ITN, the patients were pain free without medications (p = 0.657). The difference in pain relief between GR and RFTC-GR for patients with TN-MS was not significant (p = 0.447). The median time to failure of GR was 20 months in patients with TN-MS compared with 25 months in those with ITN (p = 0.403). The median time to failure of RFTC-GR was 26 months in the TN-MS population compared with 21 months in the ITN population (p = 0.449). Patients with TN-MS experienced similar times to recurrence whether they were treated with GR or RFTC-GR (p = 0.431).

Conclusions

Pain relief and durability of relief outcomes of GR and RFTC-GR were similar in patients with TN-MS and ITN, reinforcing their use as preferred treatments of TN-MS. The GR and RFTC-GR achieved comparable outcomes in patients with TN-MS, suggesting that both can be used to good effect.

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Michael A. Silva, Alfred P. See, Priyank Khandelwal, Ashutosh Mahapatra, Kai U. Frerichs, Rose Du, Nirav J. Patel and Mohammad A. Aziz-Sultan

OBJECTIVE

Paraclinoid aneurysms represent approximately 5% of intracranial aneurysms (Drake et al. [1968]). Visual impairment, which occurs in 16%–40% of patients, is among the most common presentations of these aneurysms (Day [1990], Lai and Morgan [2013], Sahlein et al. [2015], and Silva et al. [2017]). Flow-diverting stents, such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED), are increasingly used to treat these aneurysms, in part because of their theoretical reduction of mass effect (Fiorella et al. [2009]). Limited data on paraclinoid aneurysms treated with a PED exist, and few studies have compared outcomes of patients after PED placement with those of patients after clipping or coiling.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 115 patients with an aneurysm of the cavernous to ophthalmic segments of the internal carotid artery treated with clipping, coiling, or PED deployment between January 2011 and March 2017. Postoperative complications were defined as new neurological deficit, aneurysm rupture, recanalization, or other any operative complication that required reintervention.

RESULTS

A total of 125 paraclinoid aneurysms in 115 patients were treated, including 70 with PED placement, 23 with coiling, and 32 with clipping. Eighteen (14%) aneurysms were ruptured. The mean aneurysm size was 8.2 mm, and the mean follow-up duration was 18.4 months. Most aneurysms were discovered incidentally, but visual impairment, which occurred in 21 (18%) patients, was the most common presenting symptom. Among these patients, 15 (71%) experienced improvement in their visual symptoms after treatment, including 14 (93%) of these 15 patients who were treated with PED deployment. Complete angiographic occlusion was achieved in 89% of the patients. Complications were seen in 17 (15%) patients, including 10 (16%) after PED placement, 2 (9%) after coiling, and 5 (17%) after clipping. Patients with incomplete aneurysm occlusion had a higher rate of procedural complications than those with complete occlusion (p = 0.02). The rate of postoperative visual improvement was significantly higher among patients treated with PED deployment than in those treated with coiling (p = 0.01). The significant predictors of procedural complications were incomplete occlusion (p = 0.03), hypertension, (p = 0.04), and diabetes (p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

In a large series in which patient outcomes after treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms were compared, the authors found a high rate of aneurysm occlusion and a comparable rate of procedural complications among patients treated with PED placement compared with the rates among those who underwent clipping or coiling. For patients who presented with visual symptoms, those treated with PED placement had the highest rate of visual improvement. The results of this study suggest that the PED is an effective and safe modality for treating paraclinoid aneurysms, especially for patients who present with visual symptoms.

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Alfred P. See, Bruno C. Flores, Karam Moon, Andrew F. Ducruet, Robert F. Spetzler and Felipe C. Albuquerque

Supratentorial arteriovenous malformations in eloquent territories can be difficult to resect. This video presents the treatment of a patient with a symptomatic 3-cm arteriovenous malformation in the left motor strip. At the authors’ institution, per the surgeon’s discretion, preoperative angiography is performed to evaluate the need for preoperative embolization. Multimodality treatment reduced the microsurgical risk by allowing early occlusion of a draining vein, by decreasing overall intraoperative hemorrhage, and by allowing minimal pial dissection in the deep aspect of the arteriovenous malformation that abutted the corticospinal tract. The choice of embolysate was an additional nuance of the embolization.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/HWZ0RjgPEXg.

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Michael A. Silva, Alfred P. See, Hormuzdiyar H. Dasenbrock, Ramsey Ashour, Priyank Khandelwal, Nirav J. Patel, Kai U. Frerichs and Mohammad A. Aziz-Sultan

Successful application of endovascular neurosurgery depends on high-quality imaging to define the pathology and the devices as they are being deployed. This is especially challenging in the treatment of complex cases, particularly in proximity to the skull base or in patients who have undergone prior endovascular treatment. The authors sought to optimize real-time image guidance using a simple algorithm that can be applied to any existing fluoroscopy system. Exposure management (exposure level, pulse management) and image post-processing parameters (edge enhancement) were modified from traditional fluoroscopy to improve visualization of device position and material density during deployment. Examples include the deployment of coils in small aneurysms, coils in giant aneurysms, the Pipeline embolization device (PED), the Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device, and carotid artery stents. The authors report on the development of the protocol and their experience using representative cases.

The stent deployment protocol is an image capture and post-processing algorithm that can be applied to existing fluoroscopy systems to improve real-time visualization of device deployment without hardware modifications. Improved image guidance facilitates aneurysm coil packing and proper positioning and deployment of carotid artery stents, flow diverters, and the WEB device, especially in the context of complex anatomy and an obscured field of view.

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Bruno C. Flores, Alfred P. See, Gregory M. Weiner, Brian T. Jankowitz, Andrew F. Ducruet and Felipe C. Albuquerque

OBJECTIVE

Liquid embolic agents have revolutionized endovascular management of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). Nonetheless, since 2005, the US FDA has received more than 100 reports of microcatheter breakage or entrapment related to Onyx embolization, including 9 deaths. In 2014, the Apollo detachable-tip microcatheter became the first of its kind available in the US. Since then, few reports on its safety have been published.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review of endovascular cases by searching the patient databases at 2 tertiary cerebrovascular centers (Barrow Neurological Institute and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center). Patients who underwent endovascular embolization of an AVM or AVF using the Apollo microcatheter were identified. Patient demographics and lesion characteristics were collected. The authors analyzed Apollo-specific endovascular variables, such as number of microcatheterizations, sessions, and pedicles embolized; microcatheter tip detachment status; obliteration rate; and endovascular- and microcatheter-related morbidity and mortality.

RESULTS

From July 2014 to October 2016, a total of 177 embolizations using the Apollo microcatheter were performed in 61 patients (mean age 40.3 years). The most frequent presentation was hemorrhage (22/61, 36.1%). Most lesions were AVMs (51/61, 83.6%; mean diameter 30.6 mm). The mean Spetzler-Martin grade was 2.4. Thirty-nine (76.5%) of 51 patients with AVMs underwent resection. Microcatheterization was successful in 172 pedicles. Most patients (50/61, 82%) underwent a single embolization session. The mean number of pedicles per session was 2.5 (range 1–7). Onyx-18 was used in 103 (59.9%), N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in 44 (25.6%), and Onyx-34 in 25 (14.5%) of the 172 embolizations. In 45.9% (28/61) of the patients, lesion obliteration of 75% or greater was achieved. Tip detachment occurred in 19.2% (33/172) of microcatheters. Fifty-three (86.9%) of the 61 patients who underwent embolization with the Apollo microcatheter had good functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score 0–2). No unintended microcatheter fractures or related morbidity was observed. One patient died of intraprocedural complications unrelated to microcatheter selection. In the univariate analysis, microcatheter tip detachment (p = 0.12), single embolized pedicles (p = 0.12), and smaller AVM nidus diameter (p = 0.17) correlated positively with high obliteration rates (> 90%). In the multivariate analysis, microcatheter tip detachment was the only independent variable associated with high obliteration rates (OR 9.5; p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

The use of the Apollo detachable-tip microcatheter for embolization of AVMs and AVFs is associated with high rates of successful catheterization and obliteration and low rates of morbidity and mortality. The microcatheter was retrieved in all cases, even after prolonged injections in distal branch pedicles, often with significant reflux. This study represents the largest case series on the application of the Apollo microcatheter for neurointerventional procedures.