Evan F. Joiner, Brett E. Youngerman, Taylor S. Hudson, Jingyan Yang, Mary R. Welch, Guy M. McKhann II, Alfred I. Neugut and Jeffrey N. Bruce
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of perioperative antiepileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis on short- and long-term seizure incidence among patients undergoing brain tumor surgery. It is the first meta-analysis to focus exclusively on perioperative AED prophylaxis among patients undergoing brain tumor surgery.
The authors searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, and the System for Information on Gray Literature in Europe for records related to perioperative AED prophylaxis for patients with brain tumors. Risk of bias in the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Incidence rates for early seizures (within the first postoperative week) and total seizures were estimated based on data from randomized controlled trials. A Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used to analyze pooled relative risk (RR) of early seizures (within the first postoperative week) and total seizures associated with perioperative AED prophylaxis versus control.
Four RCTs involving 352 patients met the criteria of inclusion. The results demonstrated that perioperative AED prophylaxis for patients undergoing brain tumor surgery provides a statistically significant reduction in risk of early postoperative seizures compared with control (RR = 0.352, 95% confidence interval 0.130–0.949, p = 0.039). AED prophylaxis had no statistically significant effect on the total (combined short- and long-term) incidence of seizures.
This meta-analysis demonstrates for the first time that perioperative AED prophylaxis for brain tumor surgery provides a statistically significant reduction in early postoperative seizure risk.
Adam M. Sonabend, Brad E. Zacharia, Hannah Goldstein, Samuel S. Bruce, Dawn Hershman, Alfred I. Neugut and Jeffrey N. Bruce
Central nervous system (CNS) hemangiopericytomas are relatively uncommon and unique among CNS tumors as they can originate from or develop metastases outside of the CNS. Significant difference of opinion exists in the management of these lesions, as current treatment paradigms are based on limited clinical experience and single-institution series. Given these limitations and the absence of prospective clinical trials within the literature, nationwide registries have the potential to provide unique insight into the efficacy of various therapies.
The authors queried the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to investigate the clinical behavior and prognostic factors for hemangiopericytomas originating within the CNS during the years 2000–2009. The SEER survival data were adjusted for demographic factors including age, sex, and race. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify characteristics associated with overall survival.
The authors identified 227 patients with a diagnosis of CNS hemangiopericytoma. The median length of follow-up was 34 months (interquartile range 11–63 months). Median survival was not reached, but the 5-year survival rate was 83%. Univariate analysis showed that age and radiation therapy were significantly associated with survival. Moreover, young age and supratentorial location were significantly associated with survival on multivariate analysis. Most importantly, multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model showed a statistically significant survival benefit for patients treated with gross-total resection (GTR) in combination with adjuvant radiation treatment (HR 0.31 [95% CI 0.01–0.95], p = 0.04), an effect not appreciated with GTR alone.
The authors describe the epidemiology of CNS hemangiopericytomas in a large, national cancer database, evaluating the effectiveness of various treatment paradigms used in clinical practice. In this study, an overall survival benefit was found when GTR was accomplished and combined with radiation therapy. This finding has not been appreciated in previous series of patients with CNS hemangiopericytoma and warrants future investigations into the role of upfront adjuvant radiation therapy.
John H. Sampson, Shivanand P. Lad, James E. Herndon II, Robert M. Starke and Douglas Kondziolka