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Alexis Guédon, Frédéric Clarençon, Federico Di Maria, Charlotte Rosso, Alessandra Biondi, Joseph Gabrieli, Patricia Rojas, Jacques Chiras, and Nader Sourour

OBJECTIVE

The authors evaluate the rate and discuss the pathomechanisms of very late (≥ 4-month) ischemic complications after flow-diverter stent (FDS) placement for intracranial aneurysms.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of the patients treated at Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital between January 2010 and September 2014, who underwent FDS placement for intracranial aneurysm. The patients received dual-antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel and aspirin) 5 days before and 3–6 months after the procedure and then aspirin alone for 6–9 months. An ischemic complication was defined as a sudden focal neurological deficit documented on diffusion-weighted images.

RESULTS

Eighty-six consecutive patients were included. Three (3.5%) patients treated with the Pipeline embolization device experienced a delayed acute ischemic stroke (2 cases of perforator/side-wall branch infarction and 1 case of thromboembolic stroke) with an average delay of 384 days (4 months, 20 months, and 13 months, respectively). The aneurysm locations were the left superior cerebellar artery, the right anterior choroid artery, and the left internal carotid artery (paraclinoid segment), respectively. The complications occurred after the patients had completed the antiaggregation protocol, except for Patient 1, who was receiving aspirin alone because of a spontaneous hematoma. At the acute phase, no in-stent thromboses were found on digital subtraction angiography. In Patient 2, the treated anterior choroid artery was occluded 20 months after the procedure. In Patient 3, a focal stenosis (approximately 40%) of the distal aspect of the FDS, probably caused by intimal hyperplasia, was seen.

CONCLUSIONS

Very late ischemic complications after FDS treatment were observed in 3.5% of the cases in the authors' series, some of which occurred as late as more than 1 year after placement.

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Alexis Guédon, Jean-Pierre Saint-Maurice, Cédric Thépenier, Marc-Antoine Labeyrie, Vittorio Civelli, Carine El Sissy, Michael Eliezer, Armand Aymard, Jean-Pierre Guichard, and Emmanuel Houdart

OBJECTIVE

Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is mainly treated with an endovascular approach. Two major treatment advances include transvenous embolization (TVE) with coils in 1989 and, more recently, transarterial embolization with Onyx. The aim of this study was to present a large monocentric series of patients with DAVF treated with TVE. This series reports more than 20 years of experience and describes the evolution of the medical management of these patients, as well as current indications for this treatment at the authors’ center.

METHODS

Consecutive patients treated for intracranial DAVFs with TVE from 1995 to 2018 were included. Clinical and imaging data were systematically collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors that were significantly associated with adverse clinical course or complications.

RESULTS

In this study of 136 patients with 142 DAVFs treated with TVE, the occlusion rate was 90%. The median length of follow-up was 11 months. The rate of permanent complications was 5.1%, and the procedure-related mortality rate was 1.5%. Procedure-related mortality was associated with extension of thrombosis that was observed early in our experience. The introduction of a postoperative anticoagulation regimen has drastically decreased the occurrence of this complication. Other minor complications included cochleovestibular syndrome after embolization of lateral sinus DAVF and oculomotor nerve damage after embolization of cavernous sinus DAVF.

CONCLUSIONS

TVE allows efficient occlusion of DAVF. It remains a valid option for DAVF located on a sinus that does not participate in normal venous drainage of the brain.