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Free access

Albert M. Isaacs, Yarema B. Bezchlibnyk, Heather Yong, Dilip Koshy, Geberth Urbaneja, Walter J. Hader, and Mark G. Hamilton

OBJECTIVE

The efficacy of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for the treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus has been extensively reported in the literature. However, ETV-related long-term outcome data are lacking for the adult hydrocephalus population. The objective of the present study was to assess the role of ETV as a primary or secondary treatment for hydrocephalus in adults.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective chart review of all adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with symptomatic hydrocephalus treated with ETV in Calgary, Canada, over a span of 20 years (1994–2014). Patients were dichotomized into a primary or secondary ETV cohort based on whether ETV was the initial treatment modality for the hydrocephalus or if other CSF diversion procedures had been previously attempted respectively. Primary outcomes were subjective patient-reported clinical improvement within 12 weeks of surgery and the need for any CSF diversion procedures after the initial ETV during the span of the study. Categorical and actuarial data analysis was done to compare the outcomes of the primary versus secondary ETV cohorts.

RESULTS

A total of 163 adult patients with symptomatic hydrocephalus treated with ETV were identified and followed over an average of 98.6 months (range 0.1–230.4 months). All patients presented with signs of intracranial hypertension or other neurological symptoms. The primary ETV group consisted of 112 patients, and the secondary ETV consisted of 51 patients who presented with failed ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. After the initial ETV procedure, clinical improvement was reported more frequently by patients in the primary cohort (87%) relative to those in the secondary ETV cohort (65%, p = 0.001). Additionally, patients in the primary ETV group required fewer reoperations (p < 0.001), with cumulative ETV survival time favoring this primary ETV cohort over the course of the follow-up period (p < 0.001). Fifteen patients required repeat ETV, with all but one experiencing successful relief of symptoms. Patients in the secondary ETV cohort also had a higher incidence of complications, with one occurring in 8 patients (16%) compared with 2 in the primary ETV group (2%; p = 0.010), although most complications were minor.

CONCLUSIONS

ETV is an effective long-term treatment for selected adult patients with hydrocephalus. The overall ETV success rate when it was the primary treatment modality for adult hydrocephalus was approximately 87%, and 99% of patients experience symptomatic improvement after 2 ETVs. Patients in whom VP shunt surgery fails prior to an ETV have a 22% relative risk of ETV failure and an almost eightfold complication rate, although mostly minor, when compared with patients who undergo a primary ETV. Most ETV failures occur within the first 7 months of surgery in patients treated with primary ETV, but the time to failure is more prolonged in patients who present with failed previous shunts.

Free access

Michael B. Keough, Albert M. Isaacs, Geberth Urbaneja, Jarred Dronyk, Andrew P. Lapointe, and Mark G. Hamilton

OBJECTIVE

Acute low-pressure hydrocephalus (ALPH) is characterized by clinical manifestations of an apparent raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and ventriculomegaly despite measured ICP that is below the expected range (i.e., typically ≤ 5 cm H2O). ALPH is often refractory to standard hydrocephalus intervention protocols and the ICP paradox commonly leads to delayed diagnosis. The aim of this study was to characterize ALPH and develop an algorithm to facilitate diagnosis and management for patients with ALPH.

METHODS

EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases were searched for ALPH cases from its first description in 1994 until 2019. Cases that met inclusion criteria were pooled with cases managed at the authors’ institution. Patient characteristics, presenting signs/symptoms, precipitating factors, temporizing interventions, definitive treatment, and patient outcomes were recorded.

RESULTS

There were 195 patients identified, with 42 local and 153 from the literature review (53 pediatric patients and 142 adults). Decreased level of consciousness was the predominant clinical sign. The most common etiologies of hydrocephalus were neoplasm and hemorrhage. While the majority of ALPH occurred spontaneously, 39% of pediatric patients had previously undergone a lumbar puncture. Prior to ALPH diagnosis, 92% of pediatric and 39% of adult patients had a ventricular shunt in situ. The most common temporizing intervention was subatmospheric CSF drainage. The majority of patients underwent a shunt insertion/revision or endoscopic third ventriculostomy as definitive ALPH treatment. Although the mortality rate was 11%, 83% of pediatric and 49% of adult patients returned to their pre-ALPH neurological functional status after definitive treatment. Outcomes were related to both the severity of the underlying neurosurgical disease causing the hydrocephalus and the efficacy of ALPH treatment.

CONCLUSIONS

ALPH is an underrecognized variant phenotype of hydrocephalus that is associated with multiple etiologies and can be challenging to treat as it frequently does not initially respond to standard strategies of CSF shunting. With early recognition, ALPH can be effectively managed. A management algorithm is provided as a guide for this purpose.

Open access

Albert M. Isaacs, Chad G. Ball, Nicholas Sader, Sandeep Muram, David Ben-Israel, Geberth Urbaneja, Jarred Dronyk, Richard Holubkov, and Mark G. Hamilton

OBJECTIVE

Patient outcomes of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery, the mainstay treatment for hydrocephalus in adults, are poor because of high shunt failure rates. The use of neuronavigation or laparoscopy can reduce the risks of proximal or distal shunt catheter failure, respectively, but has less independent effect on overall shunt failures. No adult studies to date have combined both approaches in the setting of a shunt infection prevention protocol to reduce shunt failure. The goal of this study was to determine whether combining neuronavigation and laparoscopy with a shunt infection prevention strategy would reduce the incidence of shunt failures in adult hydrocephalic patients.

METHODS

Adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing VP shunt surgery at a tertiary care institution prior to (pre–Shunt Outcomes [ShOut]) and after (post-ShOut) the start of a prospective continuous quality improvement (QI) study were compared. Pre-ShOut patients had their proximal and distal catheters placed under conventional freehand approaches. Post-ShOut patients had their shunts inserted with neuronavigational and laparoscopy assistance in placing the distal catheter in the perihepatic space (falciform technique). A shunt infection reduction protocol had been instituted 1.5 years prior to the start of the QI initiative. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of shunt failure (including infection) confirmed by standardized criteria indicating shunt revision surgery.

RESULTS

There were 244 (115 pre-ShOut and 129 post-ShOut) patients observed over 7 years. With a background of shunt infection prophylaxis, combined neuronavigation and laparoscopy was associated with a reduction in overall shunt failure rates from 37% to 14%, 45% to 22%, and 51% to 29% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively (HR 0.44, p < 0.001). Shunt infection rates decreased from 8% in the pre-ShOut group to 0% in the post-ShOut group. There were no proximal catheter failures in the post-ShOut group. The 2-year rates of distal catheter failure were 42% versus 20% in the pre- and post-ShOut groups, respectively (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Introducing a shunt infection prevention protocol, placing the proximal catheter under neuronavigation, and placing the peritoneal catheter in the perihepatic space by using the falciform technique led to decreased rates of infection, distal shunt failure, and overall shunt failure.

Restricted access

Albert M. Isaacs, Joshua S. Shimony, Diego M. Morales, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Alexis Hartman, Madison Cook, Christopher D. Smyser, Jennifer Strahle, Matthew D. Smyth, Yan Yan, James P. McAllister II, Robert C. McKinstry, and David D. Limbrick Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Traditionally, diffusion MRI (dMRI) has been performed in parallel with high-resolution conventional MRI, which requires long scan times and may require sedation or general anesthesia in infants and young children. Conversely, fast brain MRI permits image acquisition without the need for sedation, although its short pulse sequences, susceptibility to motion artifact, and contrast resolution have limited its use to assessing ventricular size or major structural variations. Here, the authors demonstrate the feasibility of leveraging a 3-direction fast brain MRI protocol to obtain reliable dMRI measures.

METHODS

Fast brain MRI with 3-direction dMRI was performed in infants and children before and after hydrocephalus treatment. Regions of interest in the posterior limbs of the internal capsules (PLICs) and the genu of the corpus callosum (gCC) were drawn on diffusion-weighted images, and mean diffusivity (MD) data were extracted. Ventricular size was determined by the frontal occipital horn ratio (FOHR). Differences between and within groups pre- and posttreatment, and FOHR-MD correlations were assessed.

RESULTS

Of 40 patients who met inclusion criteria (median age 27.5 months), 15 (37.5%), 17 (42.5%), and 8 (20.0%) had posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), congenital hydrocephalus (CH), or no intracranial abnormality (controls), respectively. A hydrocephalus group included both PHH and CH patients. Prior to treatment, the FOHR (p < 0.001) and PLIC MD (p = 0.027) were greater in the hydrocephalus group than in the controls. While the mean gCC MD in the hydrocephalus group (1.10 × 10−3 mm2/sec) was higher than that of the control group (0.98), the difference was not significant (p = 0.135). Following a median follow-up duration of 14 months, decreases in FOHR, PLIC MD, and gCC MD were observed in the hydrocephalus group and were similar to those in the control group (p = 0.107, p = 0.702, and p = 0.169, respectively). There were no correlations identified between FOHR and MDs at either time point.

CONCLUSIONS

The utility of fast brain MRI can be extended beyond anatomical assessments to obtain dMRI measures. A reduction in PLIC and gCC MD to levels similar to those of controls was observed within 14 months following shunt surgery for hydrocephalus in PHH and CH infants. Further studies are required to assess the role of fast brain dMRI for assessing clinical outcomes in pediatric hydrocephalus patients.

Restricted access

David Ben-Israel, Jennifer A. Mann, Michael M. H. Yang, Albert M. Isaacs, Magalie Cadieux, Nicholas Sader, Sandeep Muram, Abdulrahman Albakr, Branavan Manoranjan, Richard W. Yu, Benjamin Beland, Mark G. Hamilton, Eldon Spackman, Paul E. Ronksley, and Jay Riva-Cambrin

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization (ETV+CPC) is a novel procedure for infant hydrocephalus that was developed in sub-Saharan Africa to mitigate the risks associated with permanent implanted shunt hardware. This study summarizes the hydrocephalus literature surrounding the ETV+CPC intraoperative abandonment rate, perioperative mortality rate, cerebrospinal fluid infection rate, and failure rate.

METHODS

This systematic review and meta-analysis followed a prespecified protocol and abides by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive search strategy using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, and Web of Science was conducted from database inception to October 2019. Studies included controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies of patients with hydrocephalus younger than 18 years of age treated with ETV+CPC. Pooled estimates were calculated using DerSimonian and Laird random-effects modeling, and the significance of subgroup analyses was tested using meta-regression. The quality of the pooled outcomes was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.

RESULTS

After screening and reviewing 12,321 citations, the authors found 16 articles that met the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimate for the ETV+CPC failure rate was 0.44 (95% CI 0.37–0.51). Subgroup analysis by geographic income level showed statistical significance (p < 0.01), with lower-middle-income countries having a lower failure rate (0.32, 95% CI 0.28–0.36) than high-income countries (0.53, 95% CI 0.47–0.60). No difference in failure rate was found between hydrocephalus etiology (p = 0.09) or definition of failure (p = 0.24). The pooled estimate for perioperative mortality rate (n = 7 studies) was 0.001 (95% CI 0.00–0.004), the intraoperative abandonment rate (n = 5 studies) was 0.04 (95% CI 0.01–0.08), and the postoperative CSF infection rate (n = 5 studies) was 0.0004 (95% CI 0.00–0.003). All pooled outcomes were found to be low-quality evidence.

CONCLUSIONS

This systematic review and meta-analysis provides the most comprehensive pooled estimate for the ETV+CPC failure rate to date and demonstrates, for the first time, a statistically significant difference in failure rate by geographic income level. It also provides the first reported pooled estimates for the risk of ETV+CPC perioperative mortality, intraoperative abandonment, and CSF infection. The low quality of this evidence highlights the need for further research to improve the understanding of these critical clinical outcomes and their relevant explanatory variables and thus to appreciate which patients may benefit most from an ETV+CPC.

Systematic review registration no.: CRD42020160149 (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/)