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  • Author or Editor: Alain de Lotbinière x
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Jonathan P. Knisely, James E. Bond, Ning J. Yue, Colin Studholme and Alain C. J. de Lotbinière

✓ The purpose of this study was to develop techniques for registering image sets associated with staged or multifraction radiosurgical treatments of large targets with the Leksell gamma knife to transform shot coordinates between treatment sessions and produce cumulative dose distributions and to investigate the theoretical biological effects of such protracted treatments by means of such concepts as the linear—quadratic model and biologically effective dose.

An image registration technique based on normalized mutual information was adapted to produce one fused-image study from an imaging series acquired during distinct treatment sessions. A spreadsheet computer program was developed to determine coordinate transformations between the associated stereotactic coordinate systems based on digitized coordinates of fiducial markers appearing on the fused images. Coordinates of shots used during one treatment session could then be transformed to the stereotactic space of another session, and cumulative dose distributions could be computed. The procedure was applied to the two-stage treatment of a giant arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Overall uncertainty in each transformed shot position is approximately 0.7 mm.

An effective single-fraction dose (Deff) was defined and computed for the two-stage AVM treatment. The simple summed dose distribution was compared with the Deff distribution. Because dose values differ significantly in overlap regions between the individual distributions, the clinical usefulness of the simple cumulative distribution is dubious. It may be useful for a future update of the GammaPlan treatment planning software to generate effective single-session dose distributions for such cases.

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Alexandre C. Carpentier, R. Todd Constable, Michael J. Schlosser, Alain de Lotbinière, Joseph M. Piepmeier, Dennis D. Spencer and Issam A. Awad

Object. Functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging of the motor cortex is a potentially powerful tool in the preoperative planning of surgical procedures in and around the rolandic region. Little is known about the patterns of fMR imaging activation associated with various pathological lesions in that region or their relation to motor skills before surgical intervention.

Methods. Twenty-two control volunteers and 44 patients whose pathologies included arteriovenous malformations (AVMs; 16 patients), congenital cortical abnormalities (11 patients), and tumors (17 patients) were studied using fMR imaging and a hand motor task paradigm. Activation maps were constructed for each participant, and changes in position or amplitude of the motor activation on the lesion side were compared with the activation pattern obtained in the contralateral hemisphere. A classification scheme of plasticity (Grades 1–6) based on interhemispheric pixel asymmetry and displacement of activation was used to compare maps between patients, and relative to hand motor dexterity and/or weakness.

There was 89.4% interobserver agreement on classification of patterns of fMR imaging activation. Displacement of activation by mass effect was more likely with tumors. Cortical malformations offer a much higher functional reorganization than AVMs or tumors. High-grade plasticity is recruited to compensate for severe motor impairment.

Conclusions. Pattern modification of fMR imaging activation can be systematized in a classification of motor cortex plasticity. This classification has shown good correlation among grading, brain lesions, and motor skills. This proposal of a classification scheme, in addition to facilitating data collection and processing from different institutions, is well suited for comparing risks associated with surgical intervention and patterns of functional recovery in relation to preoperative fMR imaging categorization. Such studies are underway at the authors' institution.