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Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Victoria D. Vuong, Jared Fialkoff, Joseph Cheng, Isaac O. Karikari, and Carlos A. Bagley

OBJECTIVE

Postoperative delirium is common in elderly patients undergoing spine surgery and is associated with a longer and more costly hospital course, functional decline, postoperative institutionalization, and higher likelihood of death within 6 months of discharge. Preoperative cognitive impairment may be a risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseline cognitive impairment and postoperative delirium in geriatric patients undergoing surgery for degenerative scoliosis.

METHODS

Elderly patients 65 years and older undergoing a planned elective spinal surgery for correction of adult degenerative scoliosis were enrolled in this study. Preoperative cognition was assessed using the validated Saint Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) examination. SLUMS comprises 11 questions, with a maximum score of 30 points. Mild cognitive impairment was defined as a SLUMS score between 21 and 26 points, while severe cognitive impairment was defined as a SLUMS score of ≤ 20 points. Normal cognition was defined as a SLUMS score of ≥ 27 points. Delirium was assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and rated as absent or present on the basis of CAM. The incidence of delirium was compared in patients with and without baseline cognitive impairment.

RESULTS

Twenty-two patients (18%) developed delirium postoperatively. Baseline demographics, including age, sex, comorbidities, and perioperative variables, were similar in patients with and without delirium. The length of in-hospital stay (mean 5.33 days vs 5.48 days) and 30-day hospital readmission rates (12.28% vs 12%) were similar between patients with and without delirium, respectively. Patients with preoperative cognitive impairment (i.e., a lower SLUMS score) had a higher incidence of postoperative delirium. One- and 2-year patient reported outcomes scores were similar in patients with and without delirium.

CONCLUSIONS

Cognitive impairment is a risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium. Postoperative delirium may be associated with decreased preoperative cognitive reserve. Cognitive impairment assessments should be considered in the preoperative evaluations of elderly patients prior to surgery.

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Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Jing L. Han, Joseph Cheng, Isaac Karikari, and Carlos A. Bagley

OBJECTIVE

With the recent passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, there has been a dramatic shift toward critical analyses of quality and longitudinal assessment of subjective and objective outcomes after lumbar spine surgery. Accordingly, the emergence and routine use of real-world institutional registries have been vital to the longitudinal assessment of quality. However, prospectively obtaining longitudinal outcomes for patients at 24 months after spine surgery remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to assess if 12-month measures of treatment effectiveness accurately predict long-term outcomes (24 months).

METHODS

A nationwide, multiinstitutional, prospective spine outcomes registry was used for this study. Enrollment criteria included available demographic, surgical, and clinical outcomes data. All patients had prospectively collected outcomes measures and a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patient-reported outcomes instruments (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], SF-36, and visual analog scale [VAS]-back pain/leg pain) were completed before surgery and then at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. The Health Transition Index of the SF-36 was used to determine the 1- and 2-year minimum clinically important difference (MCID), and logistic regression modeling was performed to determine if achieving MCID at 1 year adequately predicted improvement and achievement of MCID at 24 months.

RESULTS

The study group included 969 patients: 300 patients underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), 606 patients underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), and 63 patients underwent lateral interbody fusion (LLIF). There was a significant correlation between the 12- and 24-month ODI (r = 0.82; p < 0.0001), SF-36 Physical Component Summary score (r = 0.89; p < 0.0001), VAS-back pain (r = 0.90; p < 0.0001), and VAS-leg pain (r = 0.85; p < 0.0001). For the ALIF cohort, patients achieving MCID thresholds for ODI at 12 months were 13-fold (p < 0.0001) more likely to achieve MCID at 24 months. Similarly, for the TLIF and LLIF cohorts, patients achieving MCID thresholds for ODI at 12 months were 13-fold and 14-fold (p < 0.0001) more likely to achieve MCID at 24 months. Outcome measures obtained at 12 months postoperatively are highly predictive of 24-month outcomes, independent of the surgical procedure.

CONCLUSIONS

In a multiinstitutional prospective study, patient-centered measures of surgical effectiveness obtained at 12 months adequately predict long-term (24-month) outcomes after lumbar spine surgery. Patients achieving MCID at 1 year were more likely to report meaningful and durable improvement at 24 months, suggesting that the 12-month time point is sufficient to identify effective versus ineffective patient care.

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Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Victoria D. Vuong, Jessica Moreno, Joseph Cheng, Isaac O. Karikari, and Carlos A. Bagley

OBJECTIVE

Geriatric patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery have unique needs due to the physiological changes of aging. They are at risk for adverse outcomes such as delirium, infection, and iatrogenic complications, and these complications, in turn, contribute to the risk of functional decline, nursing home admission, and death. Whether preoperative and perioperative comanagement by a geriatrician reduces the incidence of in-hospital complications and length of in-hospital stay after elective lumbar spine surgery remains unknown.

METHODS

A unique model of comanagement for elderly patients undergoing lumbar fusion surgery was implemented at a major academic medical center. The Perioperative Optimization of Senior Health (POSH) program was launched with the aim of improving outcomes in elderly patients (> 65 years old) undergoing complex lumbar spine surgery. In this model, a geriatrician evaluates elderly patients preoperatively, in addition to performing routine preoperative anesthesia surgical screening, and comanages them daily throughout the course of their hospital stay to manage medical comorbid conditions and coordinate multidisciplinary rehabilitation along with the neurosurgical team. The first 100 cases were retrospectively reviewed after initiation of the POSH protocol and compared with the immediately preceding 25 cases to assess the incidence of perioperative complications and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

One hundred twenty-five patients undergoing lumbar decompression and fusion were enrolled in this pilot program. Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts. The mean length of in-hospital stay was 30% shorter in the POSH cohort (6.13 vs 8.72 days; p = 0.06). The mean duration of time between surgery and patient mobilization was significantly shorter in the POSH cohort compared with the non-POSH cohort (1.57 days vs 2.77 days; p = 0.02), and the number of steps ambulated on day of discharge was 2-fold higher in the POSH cohort (p = 0.04). Compared with the non-POSH cohort, the majority of patients in the POSH cohort were discharged to home (24% vs 54%; p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Geriatric comanagement reduces the incidence of postoperative complications, shortens the duration of in-hospital stay, and contributes to improved perioperative functional status in elderly patients undergoing elective spinal surgery for the correction of adult degenerative scoliosis.

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Zach Pennington, Jeff Ehresman, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, John H. Shin, C. Rory Goodwin, Joseph H. Schwab, and Daniel M. Sciubba

OBJECTIVE

Long-term local control in patients with primary chordoma and sarcoma of the spine and sacrum is increasingly reliant upon en bloc resection with negative margins. At many institutions, adjuvant radiation is recommended; definitive radiation is also recommended for the treatment of unresectable tumors. Because of the high off-target radiation toxicities associated with conventional radiotherapy, there has been growing interest in the use of proton and heavy-ion therapies. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding these therapies.

METHODS

The PubMed, OVID, Embase, and Web of Science databases were queried for articles describing the use of proton, combined proton/photon, or heavy-ion therapies for adjuvant or definitive radiotherapy in patients with primary sarcoma or chordoma of the mobile spine and sacrum. A qualitative synthesis of the results was performed, focusing on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS); local control; and postradiation toxicities.

RESULTS

Of 595 unique articles, 64 underwent full-text screening and 38 were included in the final synthesis. All studies were level III or IV evidence with a high risk of bias; there was also significant overlap in the reported populations, with six centers accounting for roughly three-fourths of all reports. Five-year therapy outcomes were as follows: proton-only therapies, OS 67%–82%, PFS 31%–57%, and DFS 52%–62%; metastases occurred in 17%–18% and acute toxicities in 3%–100% of cases; combined proton/photon therapy, local control 62%–85%, OS 78%–87%, PFS 90%, and DFS 61%–72%; metastases occurred in 12%–14% and acute toxicities in 84%–100% of cases; and carbon ion therapy, local control 53%–100%, OS 52%–86%, PFS (only reported for 3 years) 48%–76%, and DFS 50%–53%; metastases occurred in 2%–39% and acute toxicities in 26%–48%. There were no studies directly comparing outcomes between photon and charged-particle therapies or comparing outcomes between radiation and surgical groups.

CONCLUSIONS

The current evidence for charged-particle therapies in the management of sarcomas of the spine and sacrum is limited. Preliminary evidence suggests that with these therapies local control and OS at 5 years are comparable among various charged-particle options and may be similar between those treated with definitive charged-particle therapy and historical surgical cohorts. Further research directly comparing charged-particle and photon-based therapies is necessary.

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Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Andrew B. Koo, Megan Lee, Adam J. Kundishora, Christopher S. Hong, Astrid C. Hengartner, Joaquin Camara-Quintana, Kristopher T. Kahle, and Michael L. DiLuna

OBJECTIVE

In the past decade, a gradual transition of health policy to value-based healthcare has brought increased attention to measuring the quality of care delivered. In spine surgery, adolescents with scoliosis are a population particularly at risk for depression, anxious feelings, and impaired quality of life related to back pain and cosmetic appearance of the deformity. With the rising prevalence of mental health ailments, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of concurrent affective disorders on patient care after spinal surgery in adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact that affective disorders have on perioperative complication rates, length of stay (LOS), and total costs in adolescents undergoing elective posterior spinal fusion (PSF) (≥ 4 levels) for idiopathic scoliosis.

METHODS

A retrospective study of the Kids’ Inpatient Database for the year 2012 was performed. Adolescent patients (age range 10–17 years old) with AIS undergoing elective PSF (≥ 4 levels) were selected using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding system. Patients were categorized into 2 groups at discharge: affective disorder or no affective disorder. Patient demographics, comorbidities, complications, LOS, discharge disposition, and total cost were assessed. The primary outcomes were perioperative complication rates, LOS, total cost, and discharge dispositions.

RESULTS

There were 3759 adolescents included in this study, of whom 164 (4.4%) were identified with an affective disorder (no affective disorder: n = 3595). Adolescents with affective disorders were significantly older than adolescents with no affective disorders (affective disorder: 14.4 ± 1.9 years vs no affective disorder: 13.9 ± 1.8 years, p = 0.001), and had significantly different proportions of race (p = 0.005). Aside from hospital region (p = 0.016), no other patient- or hospital-level factors differed between the cohorts. Patient comorbidities did not differ significantly between cohorts. The number of vertebral levels involved was similar between the cohorts, with the majority of patients having 9 or more levels involved (affective disorder: 76.8% vs no affective disorder: 79.5%, p = 0.403). Postoperative complications were similar between the cohorts, with no significant difference in the proportion of patients experiencing a postoperative complication (p = 0.079) or number of complications (p = 0.124). The mean length of stay and mean total cost were similar between the cohorts. Moreover, the routine and nonroutine discharge dispositions were also similar between the cohorts, with the majority of patients having routine discharges (affective disorder: 93.9% vs no affective disorder: 94.9%, p = 0.591).

CONCLUSIONS

This study suggests that affective disorders may not have a significant impact on surgical outcomes in adolescent patients undergoing surgery for scoliosis in comparison with adults. Further studies are necessary to elucidate how affective disorders affect adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis, which may improve provider approach in managing these patients perioperatively and at follow-up in hopes to better the overall patient satisfaction and quality of care delivered.

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Owoicho Adogwa, Isaac O. Karikari, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Amanda R. Sergesketter, Diego Galan, and Keith H. Bridwell

OBJECTIVE

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are often measured up to 2 years after surgery; however, prospective collection of longitudinal outcomes for 5 years postoperatively can be challenging due to lack of patient follow-up. The aim of this study was to determine whether PROs collected at 2-year follow-up accurately predict long-term PROs 5 years after complex spinal fusion (≥ 5 levels).

METHODS

This was an ambispective study of 118 adult patients (≥ 18 years old) undergoing ≥ 5-level spinal arthrodesis to the sacrum with iliac fixation from January 2002 to December 2011. Patient demographics and radiographic parameters as well as intraoperative variables were collected. PRO instruments (Scoliosis Research Society [SRS]-22r function, self-image, mental health, pain, and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]) were completed before surgery then at 2 and 5 years after surgery. Primary outcome investigated in this study was the correlation between SRS-22r domains and ODI collected at 2- and 5-year follow-up.

RESULTS

Of the 118 patients, 111 patients had baseline PROs, 105 patients had 2-year follow-up data, and 91 patients had 5-year follow-up PRO data with 72% undergoing revision surgery. The average pre- and postoperative major coronal curve Cobb angles for the cohort were 32.1° ± 23.7° and 19.8° ± 19.3°, respectively. There was a strong correlation between 2- and 5-year ODI (r2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and between 2- and 5-year SRS-22r domains, including function (r2 = 0.79, p < 0.001), self-image (r2 = 0.82, p < 0.001), mental health (r2 = 0.77, p < 0.001), and pain (r2 = 0.79, p < 0.001). Of the PROs, ODI showed the greatest absolute change from baseline to 2- and 5-year follow-up (2-year Δ 17.6 ± 15.9; 5-year Δ 16.5 ± 19.9) followed by SRS-22r self-image (2-year Δ 1.4 ± 0.96; 5-year Δ 1.3 ± 1.0), pain (2-year Δ 0.94 ± 0.97; 5-year Δ 0.80 ± 1.0), function (2-year Δ 0.60 ± 0.62; 5-year Δ 0.49 ± 0.79), and mental health (2-year Δ 0.49 ± 0.77; 5-year Δ 0.38 ± 0.84).

CONCLUSIONS

Patient-reported outcomes collected at 2-year follow-up may accurately predict long-term PROs (5-year follow-up).

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Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Andrew B. Koo, Adam J. Kundishora, Fouad Chouairi, Megan Lee, Astrid C. Hengartner, Joaquin Camara-Quintana, Kristopher T. Kahle, and Michael L. DiLuna

OBJECTIVE

Health policy changes have led to increased emphasis on value-based care to improve resource utilization and reduce inpatient hospital length of stay (LOS). Recently, LOS has become a major determinant of quality of care and resource utilization. For adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the determinants of extended LOS after elective posterior spinal fusion (PSF) remain relatively unknown. In the present study, the authors investigated the impact of patient and hospital-level risk factors on extended LOS following elective PSF surgery (≥ 4 levels) for AIS.

METHODS

The Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID) was queried for the year 2012. Adolescent patients (age range 10–17 years) with AIS undergoing elective PSF (≥ 4 levels) were selected using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding system. Extended hospital LOS was defined as greater than the 75th percentile for the entire cohort (> 6 days), and patients were dichotomized as having normal LOS or extended LOS. Patient demographics, comorbidities, complications, LOS, discharge disposition, and total cost were recorded. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the odds ratio for risk-adjusted LOS. The primary outcome was the degree to which patient comorbidities or postoperative complications correlated with extended LOS.

RESULTS

Comorbidities were overall significantly higher in the extended-LOS cohort than the normal-LOS cohort. Patients with extended LOS had a significantly greater proportion of blood transfusion (p < 0.001) and ≥ 9 vertebral levels fused (p < 0.001). The overall complication rates were greater in the extended-LOS cohort (20.3% [normal-LOS group] vs 43.5% [extended-LOS group]; p < 0.001). On average, the extended-LOS cohort incurred $18,916 more in total cost than the normal-LOS group ($54,697 ± $24,217 vs $73,613 ± $38,689, respectively; p < 0.001) and had more patients discharged to locations other than home (p < 0.001) than did patients in the normal-LOS cohort. On multivariate logistic regression, several risk factors were associated with extended LOS, including female sex, obesity, hypertension, fluid electrolyte disorder, paralysis, blood transfusion, ≥ 9 vertebrae fused, dural injury, and nerve cord injury. The odds ratio for extended LOS was 1.95 (95% CI 1.50–2.52) for patients with 1 complication and 5.43 (95% CI 3.35–8.71) for patients with > 1 complication.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ study using the KID demonstrates that patient comorbidities and intra- and postoperative complications all contribute to extended LOS after spinal fusion for AIS. Identifying multimodality interventions focused on reducing LOS, bettering patient outcomes, and lowering healthcare costs are necessary to improve the overall value of care for patients undergoing spinal fusion for AIS.

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Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Owoicho Adogwa, Emily Lydon, Amanda Sergesketter, Rayan Kaakati, Ankit I. Mehta, Raul A. Vasquez, Joseph Cheng, Carlos A. Bagley, and Isaac O. Karikari

OBJECTIVE

Depression is the most prevalent affective disorder in the US, and patients with spinal deformity are at increased risk. Postoperative delirium has been associated with inferior surgical outcomes, including morbidity and mortality. The relationship between depression and postoperative delirium in patients undergoing spine surgery is relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if depression is an independent risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium in patients undergoing decompression and fusion for deformity.

METHODS

The medical records of 923 adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing elective spine surgery at a single major academic institution from 2005 through 2015 were reviewed. Of these patients, 255 (27.6%) patients had been diagnosed with depression by a board-certified psychiatrist and constituted the Depression group; the remaining 668 patients constituted the No-Depression group. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and intra- and postoperative complication rates were collected for each patient and compared between groups. The primary outcome investigated in this study was rate of postoperative delirium, according to DSM-V criteria, during initial hospital stay after surgery. The association between depression and postoperative delirium rate was assessed via multivariate logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS

Patient demographics and comorbidities other than depression were similar in the 2 groups. In the Depression group, 85.1% of the patients were taking an antidepressant prior to surgery. There were no significant between-group differences in intraoperative variables and rates of complications other than delirium. Postoperative complication rates were also similar between the cohorts, including rates of urinary tract infection, fever, deep and superficial surgical site infection, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, urinary retention, and proportion of patients transferred to the intensive care unit. In total, 66 patients (7.15%) had an episode of postoperative delirium, with depressed patients experiencing approximately a 2-fold higher rate of delirium (10.59% vs 5.84%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, depression was an independent predictor of postoperative delirium after spine surgery in spinal deformity patients (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study suggest that depression is an independent risk factor for postoperative delirium after elective spine surgery. Further studies are necessary to understand the effects of affective disorders on postoperative delirium, in hopes to better identify patients at risk.

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Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Amanda Sergesketter, Victoria D. Vuong, Ankit I. Mehta, Raul A. Vasquez, Joseph Cheng, Carlos A. Bagley, and Isaac O. Karikari

OBJECTIVE

Wound infections following spinal surgery for deformity place a high toll on patients, providers, and the health care system. The prophylactic application of intraoperative vancomycin powder has been shown to lower the infection risk after thoracolumbar decompression and fusion for deformity correction. The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological patterns of postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) after prophylactic use of vancomycin powder in adult patients undergoing spinal deformity surgery.

METHODS

All cases involving adult patients who underwent spinal deformity reconstruction at Duke University Medical Center between 2011 and 2013 with a minimum of 3 months of clinical follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases included in the study, crystalline vancomycin powder was applied to the surgical bed for infection prophylaxis. Baseline characteristics, operative details, rates of wound infection, and microbiological data for each case were gathered by direct medical record review.

RESULTS

A total of 1200 consecutive spine operations were performed for deformity between 2011 and 2013. Review of the associated records demonstrated 34 cases of SSI, yielding an SSI rate of 2.83%. The patients’ mean age (± SD) was 62.08 ± 14.76 years. The patients’ mean body mass index was 30.86 ± 7.15 kg/m2, and 29.41% had a history of diabetes. The average dose of vancomycin powder was 1.41 ± 2.77 g (range 1–7 g). Subfascial drains were placed in 88% of patients. All SSIs occurred within 30 days of surgery, with deep wound infections accounting for 50%. In 74% of the SSIs cultures were positive, with about half the organisms being gram negative, such as Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morgani, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There were no adverse clinical outcomes related to the local application of vancomycin.

CONCLUSIONS

Our study suggests that in the setting of prophylactic vancomycin powder use, the preponderance of SSIs are caused by gram-negative organisms or are polymicrobial. Further randomized control trials of prophylactic adjunctive measures are warranted to help guide the choice of empirical antibiotic therapy while awaiting culture data.

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Bethany Hung, Zach Pennington, Andrew M. Hersh, Andrew Schilling, Jeff Ehresman, Jaimin Patel, Albert Antar, Jose L. Porras, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, and Daniel M. Sciubba

OBJECTIVE

Previous studies have suggested the possibility of racial disparities in surgical outcomes for patients undergoing spine surgery, although this has not been thoroughly investigated in those with spinal metastases. Given the increasing prevalence of spinal metastases requiring intervention, knowledge about potential discrepancies in outcomes would benefit overall patient care. The objective in the present study was to investigate whether race was an independent predictor of postoperative complications, nonroutine discharge, and prolonged length of stay (LOS) after surgery for spinal metastasis.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively examined patients at a single comprehensive cancer center who had undergone surgery for spinal metastasis between April 2013 and April 2020. Demographic information, primary pathology, preoperative clinical characteristics, and operative outcomes were collected. Factors achieving p values < 0.15 on univariate regression were entered into a stepwise multivariable logistic regression to generate predictive models. Nonroutine discharge was defined as a nonhome discharge destination and prolonged LOS was defined as LOS greater than the 75th percentile for the entire cohort.

RESULTS

Three hundred twenty-eight patients who had undergone 348 operations were included: 240 (69.0%) White and 108 (31.0%) Black. On univariable analysis, cohorts significantly differed in age (p = 0.02), marital status (p < 0.001), insurance status (p = 0.03), income quartile (p = 0.02), primary tumor type (p = 0.04), and preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score (p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, race was an independent predictor for nonroutine discharge: Black patients had significantly higher odds of nonroutine discharge than White patients (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28–3.92, p = 0.005). Older age (AOR 1.06 per year, 95% CI 1.03–1.09, p < 0.001), preoperative KPS score ≤ 70 (AOR 3.30, 95% CI 1.93–5.65, p < 0.001), preoperative Frankel grade A–C (AOR 3.48, 95% CI 1.17–10.3, p = 0.02), insurance status (p = 0.005), being unmarried (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.35–0.97, p = 0.04), number of levels (AOR 1.17 per level, 95% CI 1.05–1.31, p = 0.004), and thoracic involvement (AOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.02–2.88, p = 0.04) were also predictive of nonroutine discharge. However, race was not independently predictive of postoperative complications or prolonged LOS. Higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (AOR 1.22 per point, 95% CI 1.04–1.43, p = 0.01), low preoperative KPS score (AOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.16–2.92, p = 0.01), and number of levels (AOR 1.15 per level, 95% CI 1.05–1.27, p = 0.004) were predictive of complications, while insurance status (p = 0.05), income quartile (p = 0.01), low preoperative KPS score (AOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.03–2.72, p = 0.05), and number of levels (AOR 1.16 per level, 95% CI 1.05–1.30, p = 0.004) were predictive of prolonged LOS.

CONCLUSIONS

Race, insurance status, age, baseline functional status, and marital status were all independently associated with nonroutine discharge. This suggests that a combination of socioeconomic factors and functional status, rather than medical comorbidities, may best predict postdischarge disposition in patients treated for spinal metastases. Further investigation in a prospective cohort is merited.