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Shunsuke Nomura, Akitsugu Kawashima, Hiroyuki Akagawa and Takakazu Kawamata

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Yoshikazu Okada, Takakazu Kawamata, Akitsugu Kawashima, Kohji Yamaguchi, Yuko Ono and Tomokatsu Hori

Object

Some patients with moyamoya disease complain of severe headache, which may be closely related to cerebral ischemia. The efficacy of superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis in these patients was evaluated by clinicoradiological studies.

Methods

Of 117 consecutive patients with ischemic moyamoya disease, 25 complained mainly of severe headache (headache group) and 92 had no significant headache (nonheadache group). Intensity of headache was evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Furthermore, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) were assessed pre- and postoperatively.

Results

The headache group was significantly younger than the nonheadache group. In a group corrected for the age distribution, preoperative rCBF and CVR were similar in headache and nonheadache groups. After STA-MCA anastomosis, 16 patients with headache experienced complete relief from headache, 7 patients showed remarkable improvements and discontinued medications for headache, and the remaining 2 patients had some alleviation of headache but sometimes required medication. In the headache group, the postoperative rCBF was significantly greater than the preoperative value. The postoperative rCBF in this group was also significantly greater than the postoperative rCBF in the nonheadache group.

Conclusions

These data suggest that severe headache is one of the main symptoms in young patients with moyamoya disease probably related to cerebral circulatory disturbances. An STA-MCA anastomosis is effective in relieving headache in patients with ischemic moyamoya disease manifesting severe headache, probably by improving perfusion pressure and cerebral circulation.

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Shunsuke Nomura, Koji Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Akitsugu Kawashima, Yoshikazu Okada and Takakazu Kawamata

OBJECTIVE

Effectively retaining the patency of the extracranial-intracranial (ECIC) bypass is one of the most important factors in improving long-term results; however, the factors influencing bypass patency have not been discussed much. Therefore, the authors investigated factors influencing the development of the bypass graft.

METHODS

In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated 49 consecutive hemispheres in 47 adult Japanese patients who had undergone ECIC bypass for chronic steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. To evaluate objectively the development of the ECIC bypass graft, the change in the area of the main trunk portion of the superficial temporal artery (STA) from before to after bypass surgery (postop/preop STA) was measured. Using the interquartile range (IQR), the authors statistically analyzed the factors associated with excellent (> 3rd quartile) and poor development (< 1st quartile) of the bypass graft.

RESULTS

The postop/preop STA ranged from 1.08 to 6.13 (median 1.97, IQR 1.645–2.445). There was a significant difference in the postop/preop STA between the presence and absence of concurrent diabetes mellitus (p = 0.0432) and hyperlipidemia (0.0069). Furthermore, logistic regression analysis revealed that only concurrent diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with poor development of the bypass graft (p = 0.0235).

CONCLUSIONS

Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia influenced the development of the ECIC bypass graft. In particular, diabetes mellitus is the only factor associated with poor development of the bypass graft.