Ahmed Mansour, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Sherif Rashad, Akira Sumiyoshi, Rie Ryoke, Hidenori Endo, Toshiki Endo, Kenichi Sato, Ryuta Kawashima and Teiji Tominaga
The cognitive deficits of vascular dementia and the vasoocclusive state of moyamoya disease have often been mimicked with bilateral stenosis/occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery. However, the cerebral blood flow (CBF) declines abruptly in these models after ligation of the CCA, which differs from “chronic” cerebral hypoperfusion. While some modified but time-consuming techniques have used staged occlusion of both CCAs, others used microcoils for CCA stenosis, producing an adverse effect on the arterial endothelium. Thus, the authors developed a new chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) model with cognitive impairment and a low mortality rate in rats.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral CCA occlusion and contralateral induction of CCA stenosis (modified CCA occlusion [mCCAO]) or a sham operation. Cortical regional CBF (rCBF) was measured using laser speckle flowmetry. Cognitive function was assessed using a Barnes circular maze (BCM). MRI studies were performed 4 weeks after the operation to evaluate cervical and intracranial arteries and parenchymal injury. Behavioral and histological studies were performed at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery.
The mCCAO group revealed a gradual CBF reduction with a low mortality rate (2.3%). White matter degeneration was evident in the corpus callosum and corpus striatum. Although the cellular density declined in the hippocampus, MRI revealed no cerebral infarctions after mCCAO. Immunohistochemistry revealed upregulated inflammatory cells and angiogenesis in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Results of the BCM assessment indicated significant impairment in spatial learning and memory in the mCCAO group. Although some resolution of white matter injury was observed at 8 weeks, the animals still had cognitive impairment.
The mCCAO is a straightforward method of producing a CCH model in rats. It is associated with a low mortality rate and could potentially be used to investigate vascular disease, moyamoya disease, and CCH. This model was verified for an extended time point of 8 weeks after surgery.
Yui Mano, Ryuta Saito, Yoichi Haga, Tadao Matsunaga, Rong Zhang, Masashi Chonan, Shinya Haryu, Takuhiro Shoji, Aya Sato, Yukihiko Sonoda, Noriko Tsuruoka, Keisuke Nishiyachi, Akira Sumiyoshi, Hiroi Nonaka, Ryuta Kawashima and Teiji Tominaga
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is an effective drug delivery method that delivers high concentrations of drugs directly into the targeted lesion beyond the blood-brain barrier. However, the drug distribution attained using CED has not satisfactorily covered the entire targeted lesion in tumors such as glioma. Recently, the efficacy of ultrasound assistance was reported for various drug delivery applications. The authors developed a new ultrasound-facilitated drug delivery (UFD) system that enables the application of ultrasound at the infusion site. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of the UFD system and to examine effective ultrasound profiles.
The authors fabricated a steel bar-based device that generates ultrasound and enables infusion of the aqueous drug from one end of the bar. The volume of distribution (Vd) after infusion of 10 ml of 2% Evans blue dye (EBD) into rodent brain was tested with different frequencies and applied voltages: 252 kHz/30 V; 252 kHz/60 V; 524 kHz/13 V; 524 kHz/30 V; and 524 kHz/60 V. In addition, infusion of 5 mM gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) was tested with 260 kHz/60 V, the distribution of which was evaluated using a 7-T MRI unit. In a nonhuman primate (Macaca fascicularis) study, 300 μl of 1 mM Gd-DTPA/EBD was infused. The final distribution was evaluated using MRI. Two-sample comparisons were made by Student t-test, and 1-way ANOVA was used for multiple comparisons. Significance was set at p < 0.05.
After infusion of 10 μl of EBD into the rat brain using the UFD system, the Vds of EBD in the UFD groups were significantly larger than those of the control group. When a frequency of 252 kHz was applied, the Vd of the group in which 60 V was applied was significantly larger than that of the group in which 30 V was used. When a frequency of 524 kHz was applied, the Vd tended to increase with application of a higher voltage; however, the differences were not significant (1-way ANOVA). The Vd of Gd-DTPA was also significantly larger in the UFD group than in the control group (p < 0.05, Student t-test). The volume of Gd-DTPA in the nonhuman primate used in this study was 1209.8 ± 193.6 mm3. This volume was much larger than that achieved by conventional CED (568.6 ± 141.0 mm3).
The UFD system facilitated the distribution of EBD and Gd-DTPA more effectively than conventional CED. Lower frequency and higher applied voltage using resonance frequencies might be more effective to enlarge the Vd. The UFD system may provide a new treatment approach for CNS disorders.