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Ibrahim Higazi and Ahmed El-Banhawy

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Ibrahim Higazi and Ahmed El-Banhawy

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Ibrahim Higazi, Ahmed El-Banhawy and F. El-Nady

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Ahmed G. Ibrahim and H. Alan Crockard

Object

Basilar impression (BI) secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare but debilitating condition that is often progressive unless it is halted. More recently, ventral decompression surgery has been advocated for this condition. This study is a retrospective review of the 21-year experience of ventral decompression surgery and dorsal occipitocervical fixation in patients with BI secondary to OI and is the largest patient series reported to date.

Methods

Twenty patients treated between 1982 and 2003 by the senior author at the authors' institution were included in this study. All patients underwent ventral decompression surgery followed by dorsal craniocervical stabilization. Patients were followed up for a median of 10 years.

Results

There were no intraoperative or perioperative deaths. Postoperatively, 16 of 20 (80%) patients showed objective improvement or maintained their good preoperative level of function. After surgery, of the 15 patients admitted with Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) scores of 70% or less, 11 improved, two remained unchanged, one patient's condition deteriorated, and one patient died of an unrelated cause. Of five patients admitted with a KPS score of 80% or greater, no patient's condition deteriorated in the short- and midterm period, but one patient had recurrence 15 years after surgery. At the end of follow-up, 25% of the patients had recurrence of brainstem compression symptoms or had died, and 15% showed no improvement after surgery. All of the remaining patients (60%) had sustained a long-term benefit from surgery.

Conclusions

Aggressive ventral decompression surgery and dorsal stabilization for patients with BI secondary to OI can not only halt disease progression but can also produce a good and sustainable long-term functional outcome, even in those patients who present as severely symptomatic. Patients who presented early with minor symptoms had good long-term outcomes.

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Ahmed A. Toreih, Asser A. Sallam, Cherif M. Ibrahim, Ahmed I. Maaty and Mohsen M. Hassan

OBJECTIVE

Spinal cord injury (SCI) has been investigated in various animal studies. One promising therapeutic approach involves the transfer of peripheral nerves originating above the level of injury into those originating below the level of injury. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of nerve transfers for reinnervation of lower limbs in patients suffering SCI to restore some hip and knee functions, enabling them to independently stand or even step forward with assistive devices and thus improve their quality of life.

METHODS

The feasibility of transferring intercostal to gluteal nerves and the ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves to femoral nerves was assessed in 5 cadavers. Then, lumbar cord hemitransection was performed below L1 in 20 dogs, followed by transfer of the 10th, 11th, and 12th intercostal and subcostal nerves to gluteal nerves and the ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves to the femoral nerve in only 10 dogs (NT group). At 6 months, clinical and electrophysiological evaluations of the recipient nerves and their motor targets were performed.

RESULTS

The donor nerves had sufficient length to reach the recipient nerves in a tension-free manner. At 6 months postoperatively, the mean conduction velocity of gluteal and femoral nerves, respectively, increased to 96.1% and 92.8% of the velocity in controls, and there was significant motor recovery of the quadriceps femoris and glutei.

CONCLUSIONS

Intercostal, ilioinguinal, and iliohypogastric nerves are suitable donors to transfer to the gluteal and femoral nerves after SCI to restore some hip and knee motor functions.

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Lindsay Tetreault, Ahmed Ibrahim, Pierre Côté, Anoushka Singh and Michael G. Fehlings

OBJECT

Although generally safe and effective, surgery for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is associated with complications in 11%–38% of patients. Several predictors of postoperative complications have been proposed but few are used to detect high-risk patients. A standard approach to identifying “at-risk” patients would improve surgeons’ ability to prevent and manage these complications. The authors aimed to compare the complication rates between various surgical procedures used to treat CSM and to identify patient-specific, clinical, imaging, and surgical predictors of complications.

METHODS

The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and searched MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1948 to September 2013. Cohort studies designed to evaluate predictors of complications and intervention studies conducted to compare different surgical approaches were included. Each article was critically appraised independently by 2 reviewers, and the evidence was synthesized according to the principles outlined by the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group.

RESULTS

A total of 5472 citations were retrieved. Of those, 60 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. These studies included 36 prognostic cohort studies and 28 comparative intervention studies. High evidence suggests that older patients are at a greater risk of perioperative complications. Based on low evidence, other clinical factors such as body mass index, smoking status, duration of symptoms, and baseline severity score, are not predictive of complications. With respect to surgical factors, low to moderate evidence suggests that estimated blood loss, surgical approach, and number of levels do not affect rates of complications. A longer operative duration (moderate evidence), however, is predictive of perioperative complications and a 2-stage surgery is related to an increased risk of major complications (high evidence). In terms of surgical techniques, higher rates of neck pain were found in patients undergoing laminoplasty compared with anterior spinal fusion (moderate evidence). In addition, with respect to laminoplasty techniques, there was a lower incidence of C-5 palsy in laminoplasty with concurrent foraminotomy compared with nonforaminotomy (low evidence).

CONCLUSIONS

The current review suggests that older patients are at a higher risk of perioperative complications. A longer operative duration and a 2-stage surgery both reflect increased case complexity and can indirectly predict perioperative complications.

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Nicholas M. Desy, Huan Wang, Mohanad Ahmed Ibrahim Elshiekh, Shota Tanaka, Tae Woong Choi, B. Matthew Howe and Robert J. Spinner

OBJECTIVE

The etiology of intraneural ganglion cysts has been controversial. In recent years, substantial evidence has been presented to support the articular (synovial) theory for their pathogenesis. The authors sought to 1) perform a systematic review of the world's literature on intraneural cysts, and 2) reinterpret available published MR images in articles by other authors to identify unrecognized joint connections.

METHODS

In Part 1, all cases were analyzed for demographic data, duration of symptoms, the presence of a history of trauma, whether electromyography or nerve conduction studies were performed, the type of imaging, surgical treatment, presence of a joint connection, intraneural cyst recurrence, and postoperative imaging. Two univariate analyses were completed: 1) to compare the proportion of intraneural ganglion cyst publications per decade and 2) to assess the number of recurrences from 1914 to 2003 compared with the years 2004–2015. Three multivariate regression models were used to identify risk factors for intraneural cyst recurrence. In Part 2, the authors analyzed all available published MR images and obtained MR images from selected cases in which joint connections were not identified by the original authors, specifically looking for unrecognized joint connections. Two univariate analyses were done: 1) to determine a possible association between the identification of a joint connection and obtaining an MRI and 2) to assess the number of joint connections reported from 1914 to 2003 compared with 2004 to 2015.

RESULTS

In Part 1, 417 articles (645 patients) were selected for analysis. Joint connections were identified in 313 intraneural cysts (48%). Both intraneural ganglion cyst cases and cyst recurrences were more frequently reported since 2004 (statistically significant difference for both). There was a statistically significant association between cyst recurrence and percutaneous aspiration as well as failure to disconnect the articular branch or address the joint. In Part 2, the authors identified 43 examples of joint connections that initially went unrecognized: 27 based on their retrospective MR image reinterpretation of published cases and 16 of 16 cases from their sampling of original MR images from published cases. Overall, joint connections were more commonly found in patients who received an MRI examination and were more frequently reported during the years 2004 to 2015 (statistically significant difference for both).

CONCLUSIONS

This comprehensive review of the world's literature and the MR images further supports the articular (synovial) theory and provides baseline data for future investigators.

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Ahmed Ibrahim, Malcolm Galloway, Clarence Leung, Tamas Revesz and Alan Crockard

✓ Chordoid meningiomas are a rare but increasingly recognized subtype of meningioma. Although some cases have been associated with systemic symptoms, in many instances the clinical features are indistinguishable from those associated with other subtypes of meningioma. Given the prognostic significance of the diagnosis of chordoid meningioma, careful consideration should be given to the diagnosis during histological assessment. The authors describe a rare case of chordoid meningioma in the cervical spinal region.

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Ibrahim H. Al-Ahmed, Mohamed Boughamoura, Peter Dirks, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, James T. Rutka and James M. Drake

Object

Neurenteric cysts (NCs) are endothelium-lined structures of presumed endodermal origin. There have been few pediatric series of intracranial NCs reported previously. The authors present their experience in the management of these lesions.

Methods

A retrospective chart review of all cases of NCs identified between 1977 and 2007 was carried out. Demographics, details of clinical presentation, surgical therapy, and outcome data were extracted.

Results

Eleven cases were identified, involving 6 girls and 5 boys. The patients' average age was 4.6 years (range 1 day–14 years). Limb weakness was the most common presenting symptom. The location of the cysts was cervical in 2 cases, cervicothoracic in 4 cases, and thoracic in 3 cases. One cyst was anterior to the pons with extension to the left cerebellopontine angle and 1 cyst was at the craniocervical junction. Five patients had an apparently complete initial excision, with 1 recurrence. Four patients were initially treated with incomplete excision and/or cyst drainage, usually into an Ommaya reservoir. A neonate with a large cervicothoracic cyst died of multiple congenital anomalies without any intervention. All other patients were alive at last follow-up. One patient with a radiologically identified presumed cyst, which remained stable, was simply followed up. Several patients required multiple procedures and 1 patient developed hydrocephalus after aseptic meningitis and was treated with CSF shunting.

Conclusions

Neurenteric cysts are rare in the pediatric population. Total resection, if possible, provides the best long-term outcome. Incomplete excision may lead to multiple procedures, including cyst drainage, but can lead to long-term stability.

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Ibrahim Ahmed, Kurtis I. Auguste, Shobhan Vachhrajani, Peter B. Dirks, James M. Drake and James T. Rutka

Object

Epidermoid tumors are benign lesions representing 1% of all intracranial tumors. There have been few pediatric series of intracranial epidermoid tumors reported previously. The authors present their experience in the management of these lesions.

Methods

The neurosurgical database at the Hospital for Sick Children was searched for children with surgically managed intracranial epidermoid tumors. The patients' charts were reviewed for demographic data, details of clinical presentation, surgical therapy, and follow-up. Ethics board approval was obtained for this study.

Results

Seven children, all girls, were identified who met the inclusion criteria between 1980 and 2007. The average age at surgery was 11.2 years (range 8–15 years), and the mean maximal tumor diameter was 2.1 cm. Headache was the most common presenting symptom, and 1 tumor was found incidentally. Most patients had normal neurological examinations, but meningism was found in 2 cases. There were 3 cerebellopontine angle lesions, 1 pontomedullary lesion, and 3 supratentorial tumors. Hydrocephalus developed in 1 patient after aseptic meningitis, and she underwent shunt placement. There were no operative deaths. Complete resection could be performed in 2 patients. One patient experienced a small recurrence that did not require a repeated operation, while 1 subtotally resected lesion recurred and the patient underwent a second operation.

Conclusions

Intracranial epidermoid tumors are rare in the pediatric population. Total resection is desirable to minimize the risk of postoperative aseptic meningitis, hydrocephalus, and tumor recurrence. Aggressive neurosurgical resection may be associated with cranial nerve or ischemic deficits, however. In these cases, neurosurgical judgment at the time of surgery is warranted to ensure maximum resection while minimizing postoperative neurological deficits.