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Marc R. Mayberg

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Adnan I. Qureshi, Malik M. Adil, Negin Shafizadeh and Shahram Majidi

Object

Despite the recognition of racial or ethnic differences in preterm gestation, such differences in the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), frequently associated with preterm gestation, are not well studied. The authors performed the current study to identify racial or ethnic differences in the incidence of IVH-related mortality within the national population of the US.

Methods

Using the ICD-10 codes P52.0, P52.1, P52.2, P52.3, and P10.2 and the Multiple Cause of Death data from 2000 to 2009, the authors identified all IVH-related mortalities that occurred in neonates and infants aged less than 1 year. The live births for whites and African Americans from the census for 2000–2009 were used to derive the incidence of IVH-related mortality for whites and African Americans per 100,000 live births. The IVH rate ratio (RR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) and annual percent change (APC) in the incidence rates from 2000 to 2009 were also calculated.

Results

A total of 3249 IVH-related mortality cases were reported from 2000 to 2009. The incidence rates of IVH were higher among African American infants (16 per 100,000 live births) than among whites (7.8 per 100,000 live births). African American infants had a 2-fold higher risk of IVH-related mortality compared with whites (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.2). The rate of increase over the last 10 years was less in African American infants (APC 1.6%) than in white infants (APC 4.3%).

Conclusions

The rate of IVH-related mortality is 2-fold higher among African American than white neonates and infants. Further studies are required to understand the underlying reasons for this prominent disparity in one of the most significant causes of infant mortality.

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Adnan I. Qureshi, Charlene Knape, John Maroney, M. Fareed K. Suri and L. Nelson Hopkins

Object. Carotid angioplasty with stent placement has been proposed as an alternative method for revascularization of carotid artery (CA) stenosis. A novel stent with a coiled sheet design (NexStent; EndoTex Interventional Systems, Inc., Cupertino, CA) has been introduced because it provides improved flexibility over conventional tubular designs during navigation through tortuous arterial segments. The authors report the results of a multicenter study in which they evaluated the safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of this stent in the treatment of CA stenosis.

Methods. Enrollment was limited to patients with 70% or more symptomatic or asymptomatic stenosis of the internal CA. The primary end point was a technically successful implantation procedure (delivery of the stent to the target site and retrieval of the delivery device) resulting in less than 30% residual stenosis on angiograms obtained immediately postprocedure and no death or ipsilateral stroke immediately after or within 30 days following the procedure. The secondary effectiveness end point was prevention of an ipsilateral stroke within 31 days to 1 year postprocedure. The tertiary effectiveness end point was less than 70% residual stenosis demonstrated on CA Doppler ultrasonography performed at 6 and 12 months.

Forty-four patients (mean age 71 years, range 51–89 years; 30 patients were men and 18 [41%] had symptomatic stenotic lesions) were treated using 45 NexStents (two stents were placed in one patient). Residual stenosis on postprocedure angiograms was less than 30% in all patients. The 1-month primary end point was achieved in 41 patients (93%). The three major adverse events that occurred within 30 days were one death related to congestive heart failure and two ipsilateral strokes, one of which resulted in death. No ipsilateral stroke occurred between 1 and 12 months postprocedure among 35 patients who completed the follow-up evaluation. Asymptomatic recurrent stenosis was identified in one patient at 6 months postprocedure, requiring the performance of repeated angioplasty.

Conclusions. Placement of the NexStent was feasible and resulted in the effective treatment of patients with CA stenosis, with promising long-term results.

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Alberto Maud, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, M. Fareed K. Suri, Gabriela Vazquez, Giuseppe Lanzino and Adnan I. Qureshi

Object

The results of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) demonstrated lower rates of death and disability with endovascular treatment (coiling) than with open surgery (clipping) to secure the ruptured intracranial aneurysm. However, cost-effectiveness may not be favorable because of the greater need for follow-up cerebral angiograms and additional follow-up treatment with endovascular methods. In this study, the authors' goal was to compare the cost-effectiveness of endovascular and neurosurgical treatments in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms who were eligible to undergo either type of treatment.

Methods

Clinical data (age, sex, frequency of retreatment, and rebleeding) and quality of life values were obtained from the ISAT. Total cost included those associated with disability, hospitalization, retreatment, and rebleeding. Cost estimates were derived from the Premier Perspective Comparative Database, data from long-term care in stroke patients, and relevant literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated during a 1-year period. Parametric bootstrapping was used to determine the uncertainty of the estimates.

Results

The median estimated costs of endovascular and neurosurgical treatments (in US dollars) were $45,493 (95th percentile range $44,693–$46,365) and $41,769 (95th percentile range $41,094–$42,518), respectively. The overall quality-adjusted life years (QALY) in the endovascular group was 0.69, and for the neurosurgical group it was 0.64. The cost per QALY in the endovascular group was $65,424 (95th percentile range $64,178–$66,772), and in the neurosurgical group it was $64,824 (95th percentile range $63,679–$66,086). The median estimated ICER at 1 year for endovascular treatment versus neurosurgical treatment was $72,872 (95th percentile range $50,344–$98,335) per QALY gained. Given that most postprocedure angiograms and additional treatments occurred in the 1st year and the 1-year disability status is unlikely to change in the future, ICER for endovascular treatment will progressively decrease over time.

Conclusions

Using outcome and economic data obtained in the US at 1 year after the procedure, endovascular treatment is more costly but is associated with better outcomes than the neurosurgical alternative among patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms who are eligible to undergo either procedure. With accrual of additional years with a better outcome status, the ICER for endovascular coiling would be expected to progressively decrease and eventually reverse.

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Qaisar A. Shah, Muhammad Zeeshan Memon, Ramachandra P. Tummala and Adnan I. Qureshi

Symptomatic occlusive lesions at the origins of the supra-aortic vessels pose challenges for treatment. Endovascular angioplasty and stent placement via the transfemoral approach is possible, but obtaining a stable position for the guide catheter via this approach is technically difficult. The authors describe the case of a 56-year-old man presenting with symptomatic occlusion of a previously placed stent at the origin of the left common carotid artery (CCA). An endovascular revascularization of the left CCA was planned. However, the absence of a lumen proximal to the stent prevented stable placement of a guide catheter via the transfemoral route. Consequently, the authors used a combined surgical and endovascular approach to gain access to the lesion. The left CCA was exposed surgically distal to the occlusion and clamped just proximal to its bifurcation to preserve flow from the external to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and to prevent embolism into the ICA. A wire was passed retrograde through the occlusive lesion and then was subsequently advanced proximally into the femoral sheath. This allowed transfemoral advancement of the appropriate endovascular devices to perform an angioplasty and placement of a stent. The patient remained neurologically stable, and postoperative studies showed improvement in cerebral perfusion. This case demonstrates the feasibility of distal-to-proximal stent delivery with a combined endovascular and surgical approach.

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Ameer E. Hassan, Gabriela A. Villanueva, Ahmed A. Malik, Sonia Shariff and Adnan I. Qureshi

OBJECTIVE

Recent studies have found an underutilization of in-hospital procedures in treatments of Hispanic patients admitted with coronary artery disease in states along the US-Mexico border (“border states”). The purpose of this study was to determine any treatment disparities between patients treated for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in border and nonborder states and whether this disparity was associated with differential hospital charges.

METHODS

Using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, the authors retrieved data of Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients who were admitted in 2011 for SAH in a border state (California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas) or nonborder state (the remaining 46 US states). The authors determined the rates of use of endovascular coiling and surgical clipping treatments, hospital charges, and outcomes according to the patients' demographics and treatment in border or nonborder states.

RESULTS

In total, 18,368 patients were admitted with SAH in the selected time period, including 2310 Hispanic patients (12.6%). Of these patients, 1525 were admitted in a border state and 785 in a nonborder state. In border states, rates of surgical treatment significantly differed between patients of Hispanic (21.9%) and non-Hispanic (14.0%) origin (p = 0.02). In particular, Hispanic patients were more likely to undergo surgical clipping than were non-Hispanic patients. In the nonborder states, the rates of surgical treatment were similar for Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients (14.0% vs 15.6%, p = 0.6). Hispanic patients with SAH were billed significantly higher in-hospital charges in border states than in nonborder states ($219,260 and $192,418 [US dollars], respectively, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Use of surgical treatments for Hispanic patients with SAH residing in border states has a unique pattern, which significantly increases in-hospital charges in this patient population.

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Adnan I. Qureshi, Gabriela Vazquez, Nauman Tariq, M. Fareed K. Suri, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan and Giuseppe Lanzino

Object

The utilization of endovascular treatment for ruptured intracranial aneurysms is expected to change since the publication of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) in 2002. The authors performed this analysis to determine the impact of ISAT results on treatment selection for ruptured intracranial aneurysms and associated in-hospital outcomes using nationally representative data.

Methods

We determined the national estimates of treatments used for ruptured intracranial aneurysms and associated in-hospital outcomes, length of stay, mortality, and cost incurred using the Nationwide Inpatient Survey (NIS) data. The NIS is the largest all-payer inpatient care database in the US and contains data from 986 hospitals approximating a 20% stratified sample of US hospitals. All the variables pertaining to hospitalization were compared between 2000–2002 and 2004–2006, and in-hospital outcomes were analyzed using multivariate analysis.

Results

In the 3-year periods prior to and after the ISAT, there were 70,637 and 77,352 admissions for ruptured intracranial aneurysms, respectively. There was a significant increase in endovascular treatment after publication of the ISAT (trend test, p < 0.0001) The in-hospital mortality for ruptured intracranial aneurysm admissions decreased from 27% to 24% (odds ratio [OR] 0.89, 95% CI 0.83–0.96, p = 0.003) after the publication of the ISAT. The cost of hospitalization after adjusting for procedures practices was not significantly higher after the publication of the ISAT ($21,437 vs $22,817, p < 0.89), but cost of hospitalization was higher in the post-ISAT period for patients undergoing endovascular procedure.

Conclusions

The results of the ISAT have been associated with a prominent change in practice patterns related to the treatment of ruptured aneurysms. The cost of hospitalization has increased and the mortality has decreased, presumably due to a larger proportion of patients receiving any treatment and endovascular treatment.

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Stanley H. Kim, Adnan I. Qureshi, Elad I. Levy, Ricardo A. Hanel, Amir M. Siddiqui and L. Nelson Hopkins

✓ The authors report a case of emergency carotid artery (CA) stent placement for a symptomatic acute CA occlusion following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). This 43-year-old man underwent a right-sided CEA for an asymptomatic 80% CA stenosis detected using duplex ultrasound testing. The patient experienced hypotension and possibly a myocardial infarction intraoperatively and a left hemiplegia immediately postoperatively. He was referred to the authors' institution for consideration of emergency coronary intervention and evaluation of stroke. A computerized tomography scan of the head demonstrated subtle early ischemic changes in the right posterior parietal region. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the right common CA (CCA) at the CA bifurcation. Two coronary stents (Magic Wall; Boston Scientific Scimed, Maple Grove, MN) were placed in tandem in the right CCA and internal CA (ICA), overlapping at the proximal cervical ICA. Complete recanalization of the CA was achieved, and the patient made a clinically significant recovery. Diagnostic angiography can provide important information about CA and intracranial circulation that will aid in the evaluation of postoperative stroke after CEA. Stent placement should be considered as an alternative method of treatment for acute CA occlusion or dissection following CEA.

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Adnan I. Qureshi, M. Fareed K. Suri, Gishel New, Daniel C. Wadsworth Jr., Joan Dulin and L. Nelson Hopkins

Object. Carotid artery (CA) angioplasty with stent placement has been proposed as an alternative technique for revascularization in cases of CA stenosis. In this report the authors review the results of a multicenter Phase I study in which they evaluated the safety and feasibility of using a new self-expanding nitinol stent, the Bard Memotherm, to treat CA stenosis.

Methods. Enrollment was limited to patients in whom there was either 50% or greater symptomatic or 70% or greater asymptomatic stenosis of the internal CA. The primary endpoint was a technically successful implantation procedure (delivery of the stent to the target site and retrieval of the delivery device), resulting in less than 30% residual stenosis demonstrated on immediate postprocedure (control) angiograms, and no incidence of mortality, ipsilateral stroke, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or other major cardiovascular events immediately after or within 30 days following the procedure.

Stent placement was attempted for 73 lesions in 71 patients (mean age 71.3 ± 8.5 years), 43 (61%) of whom were men. The mean degree of stenosis was 82.6 ± 9%. The stenosis was symptomatic in 27 (37%) and asymptomatic in 46 (63%) of 73 lesions. In four procedures the stent could not be delivered or released. The mean residual stenosis observed on angiograms was 3.8 ± 6.9% in the 69 lesions treated with the Bard Memotherm stent; residual stenosis was greater than 30% in one of the 69 procedures. The primary endpoint was achieved in 65 (89%) of the 73 procedures. One patient experienced a major ischemic stroke and another patient died of intracerebral hemorrhage. The overall 1-month stroke rate was 2.7% for 73 attempted procedures. One patient died of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which occurred 3 weeks after the stent procedure and was unrelated to the procedure.

Conclusions. The Memotherm stent can be used to treat patients with CA stenosis and is associated with a low periprocedure complication rate. Long-term follow-up studies are underway to determine the impact of stent placement on the risk of ipsilateral ischemic events.

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Richard D. Fessler, Ajay K. Wakhloo, Giuseppe Lanzino, Adnan I. Qureshi, Lee R. Guterman and L. Nelson Hopkins

Symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency may precede neurological sequelae in up to 50% of patients. Although select patients may benefit from microsurgical revascularization, combined perioperative morbidity and mortality rates can be as high as 20%. The authors present their preliminary clinical experience using stent placement for symptomatic vertebral artery (VA) occlusive disease.

Six patients with clinical symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency in whom VA stents were placed from 1995 to 1998 were identified. Diagnostic four-vessel cerebral angiography identified causative stenotic, atherosclerotic lesions in all cases. A transfemoral or transradial artery approach after the patient had undergone full heparinization was chosen for endovascular stenting. Guidewire placement across the lesion followed by urokinase infusion preceded stenting. Prestent angioplasty was performed in two patients. Following the procedure, all patients were maintained on daily antiplatelet therapy.

Patient age ranged from 45 to 76 years (average 63 years). Four patients were men and two were women. Angiography revealed greater than 95% stenosis in five patients and greater than 70% stenosis in one. Three patients had complete occlusion of the contralateral VA; in one other, the VA supplied only the posterior inferior cerebellar artery; and the remaining two patients had VAs with greater than 70% stenosis. Ten stents were placed in six patients for five VA origin lesions and one distal VA stenosis. A VA dissection occurring poststenting was treated by placement of three additional stents. One patient had transient double vision. All had resolution of their presenting symptoms. Follow up ranged from 1 to 24 months (average 8.4 months). Angiograms obtained in four patients at least 3 months postprocedure have revealed stent patency in all cases without evidence of restenosis.

Vertebral artery stent placement can be safely performed and is a viable treatment option for carefully selected patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency.