Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Adip G. Bhargav x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Lorenzo Rinaldo, Adip G. Bhargav, Cody L. Nesvick, Giuseppe Lanzino and Benjamin D. Elder

OBJECTIVE

Although ventricular shunting is an effective therapy for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), the effect of shunt valve type on the incidence of revision surgery is not well defined. To address this issue, shunt revision rates between patients with iNPH receiving a fixed-setting valve (FSV) versus a programmable valve (PV) were compared.

METHODS

Patients with iNPH treated with ventricular shunting between 2001 and 2017 were included for analysis. The incidence of shunt revision was noted and risk factors for revision were identified using a Cox proportional hazards model. Costs associated with admission for ventricular shunt procedures were obtained from the Vizient national database.

RESULTS

There were 348 patients included for analysis, with 98 patients (28.1%) receiving a PV. Shunt revision occurred in 73 patients (21.0%), with 12 patients (3.4%) undergoing multiple revisions. Overall revision rates were lower in patients receiving a PV (13.3% vs 24.0%; p = 0.027), as was the incidence of multiple revisions (0.0% vs 4.8%; p = 0.023). Patients with initial placement of an FSV were also more likely to undergo valve exchange during follow-up (12.4% vs 2.0%; p = 0.003). Patients with a PV were less likely to undergo revision due to persistent symptoms without obstruction (2.0% vs 8.8%; p = 0.031) and distal obstruction (1.0% vs 6.8%; p = 0.030). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, initial placement of a PV was associated with reduced risk of revision due to persistent symptoms without obstruction (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.04–0.93; p = 0.036). PVs were associated with more frequent shunt series (1.3 vs 0.6; p < 0.001) and head CT scans (3.6 vs 2.7; p = 0.038) during follow-up. There was no significant difference in mean total costs between patients receiving an FSV and a PV ($24,282.50 vs $24,396.90; p = 0.937).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ results suggest that PVs lead to reduced rates of shunt revision in patients with iNPH, and decreased risk of revision due to persistent symptoms of iNPH, thereby justifying the higher upfront cost of PVs despite similar overall treatment costs between these devices.

Free access

Benjamin T. Himes, Adip G. Bhargav, Desmond A. Brown, Timothy J. Kaufmann, Irina Bancos and Jamie J. Van Gompel

OBJECTIVE

Cushing’s disease arises from functioning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–secreting pituitary adenomas. These tumors can be very small and evade detection by MRI. Empty sella syndrome is a phenomenon by which an arachnoid outpouching of CSF into the sella leads to compression of the pituitary, likely due to intracranial hypertension (a common issue in Cushing’s disease), further leading to difficulty in visualizing the pituitary gland that may contribute to difficulty in finding a tumor on MRI, so-called MRI-negative Cushing’s disease. The authors sought to examine the association between empty sella syndrome and MRI-negative Cushing’s disease.

METHODS

A single-institution database of Cushing’s disease cases from 2000 to 2017 was reviewed, and 197 cases were included in the analysis. One hundred eighty patients had a tissue diagnosis of Cushing’s disease and 17 had remission with surgery, but no definitive tissue diagnosis was obtained. Macroadenomas (tumors > 1 cm) were excluded. The degree of empty sella syndrome was graded on the degree of CSF visualized in the sella on midline sagittal T1-weighted MRI.

RESULTS

Of the 197 cases identified, 40 (20%) presented with MRI-negative disease, and empty sella syndrome was present in 49 cases (25%). MRI-negative disease was found in 18 (37%) of 49 empty sella cases versus 22 (15%) of 148 cases without empty sella syndrome present. Empty sella syndrome was significantly associated with MRI-negative disease (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.61–6.74, p = 0.0018). Decreased thickness of the pituitary gland was also associated with MRI-negative disease (mean thickness 5.6 vs 6.8 mm, p = 0.0002).

CONCLUSIONS

Empty sella syndrome is associated with an increased rate of MRI-negative Cushing’s disease. Pituitary compression causing a relative reduction in the volume of the pituitary for imaging is a plausible cause for not detecting the tumor mass with MRI.

Restricted access

Lorenzo Rinaldo, Desmond A. Brown, Adip G. Bhargav, Aaron E. Rusheen, Ryan M. Naylor, Hannah E. Gilder, Dileep D. Monie, Stephanie J. Youssef and Ian F. Parney

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to investigate the incidence and predictors of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) after craniotomy for tumor resection, which are not well established, and the efficacy of and risks associated with VTE chemoprophylaxis, which remains controversial.

METHODS

The authors investigated the incidence of VTEs in a consecutive series of patients presenting to the authors’ institution for resection of an intracranial lesion between 2012 and 2017. Information on patient and tumor characteristics was collected and independent predictors of VTEs were determined using stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis. Review of the literature was performed by searching MEDLINE using the keywords “venous thromboembolism,” “deep venous thrombosis,” “pulmonary embolism,” “craniotomy,” and “brain neoplasms.”

RESULTS

There were 1622 patients included for analysis. A small majority of patients were female (52.6%) and the mean age of the cohort was 52.9 years (SD 15.8 years). A majority of intracranial lesions were intraaxial (59.3%). The incidence of VTEs was 3.0% and the rates of deep venous thromboses and pulmonary emboli were 2.3% and 0.9%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, increasing patient age (unit OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.05; p = 0.018), history of VTE (OR 7.26, 95% CI 3.24–16.27; p < 0.001), presence of motor deficit (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.43–4.88; p = 0.002), postoperative intracranial hemorrhage (OR 4.35, 95% CI 1.51–12.55; p < 0.001), and prolonged intubation or reintubation (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.28–8.32; p < 0.001) were independently associated with increased odds of a VTE. There were 192 patients who received VTE chemoprophylaxis (11.8%); the mean postoperative day of chemoprophylaxis initiation was 4.6 (SD 3.8). The incidence of VTEs was higher in patients receiving chemoprophylaxis than in patients not receiving chemoprophylaxis (8.3% vs 2.2%; p < 0.001). There were 30 instances of clinically significant postoperative hemorrhage (1.9%), with only 1 hemorrhage occurring after initiation of VTE chemoprophylaxis (0.1%).

CONCLUSIONS

The study results show the incidence and predictors of VTEs after craniotomy for tumor resection in this patient population. The incidence of VTE within this cohort appears low and comparable to that observed in other institutional series, despite the lack of routine prophylactic anticoagulation in the postoperative setting.

Restricted access

Benjamin T. Himes, Arnoley S. Abcejo, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Adip G. Bhargav, Katherine Trelstad-Andrist, Patrick R. Maloney, John L. D. Atkinson, Fredric B. Meyer, W. Richard Marsh and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

The sitting or semisitting position in neurosurgery allows for several technical advantages, including improved visualization of the surgical field. However, it has also been associated with an increased risk of venous air embolisms and positioning-related complications that limit its commonplace adoption. The authors report a large, single-center series of cervical spine procedures performed with patients in the sitting or prone position in order to assess the perceived risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications associated with the sitting position.

METHODS

Noninstrumented, single-level posterior cervical spine procedures performed with patients in the sitting/semisitting or prone position from 2000 to 2016 at a single institution were reviewed. Institutional abstraction tools (DataMart and Chart Plus) were used to collect data from the medical records. The two positions were compared with regard to preoperative factors, intraoperative variables, and postoperative outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted for 30-day readmission, 30-day return to the operating room, and complication rates.

RESULTS

A total of 750 patients (sitting, n = 480; prone, n = 270) were analyzed. The median age was 53 years for those who underwent surgery in the prone position and 50 years for those who underwent surgery in the sitting position (IQRs 45–62 years and 43–60 years, respectively), and 35% of the patients were female. Sitting cases were associated with significantly longer anesthetic times (221 minutes [range 199–252 minutes] vs 205 minutes [range 179–254 minutes]) and operative times (126 minutes [range 101–163 minutes] vs 149 minutes [120–181 minutes]). Cardiorespiratory events in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) were comparable between the two groups, with the exception of episodes of apnea (2.6% vs 0.6%, p = 0.041) and hypoventilation (4.4% vs 0.8%, p < 0.003), which were more frequent in the prone-position cohort. On multivariable analysis, the effect of the sitting versus the prone position was not significant for 30-day readmission (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.34–1.71, p = 0.52) or reoperation (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.31–1.60, p = 0.40). The sitting position was associated with lower odds of developing any complication (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.16–0.62, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the intraoperative and postoperative complications chosen in this study, the sitting position confers a similar safety profile to the prone position. This can be explained by a more anatomic positioning accounting for reduced temporary neurological deficits and reduced PACU-associated hypoventilation noted in this series. Nevertheless, the findings may also reflect institutional familiarity, experience, and mastery of this position type, and outcomes may not reflect practices in general.