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Adikarige Haritha Dulanka Silva, Sanjay Bhate, Vijeya Ganesan, Dominic Thompson, and Greg James

OBJECTIVE

Obtaining operative experience for the treatment of rare conditions in children represents a challenge for pediatric neurosurgeons. Starting in November 2017, a surgeon was mentored in surgical revascularization (SR) for pediatric moyamoya with a view to service development and sustainability. The aim of this audit was to evaluate early outcomes of SR for pediatric moyamoya during and following a surgical mentorship.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort study with chart/database review of consecutive moyamoya surgeries performed by a new attending surgeon (between November 2017 and March 2020) was compared to a previously published cohort from the authors’ institution in terms of clinical and angiographic outcomes, complications, operating time, and length of stay. A standardized technique of encephaloduroarteriomyosynangiosis with the superficial temporal artery was used.

RESULTS

Twenty-two children underwent 36 indirect SRs during the study period. Patient demographics were similar between cohorts. The first group of 6 patients had 11 SRs performed jointly by the new attending surgeon mentored by an established senior surgeon (group A), followed by 10 patients with 16 SRs performed independently by the new attending surgeon (group B). The last 6 patients had 9 SRs with the new attending surgeon mentoring a senior fellow (group C) in performing SR.

Good angiographic collateralization (Matsushima grades A and B) was observed in 80% of patients, with similar proportions across all 3 groups. A total of 18/19 symptomatic patients (95%) derived symptomatic benefit. There was no perioperative death and, compared to the historical cohort, a similar proportion had a recurrent arterial ischemic event (i.e., acute ischemic stroke) necessitating a second SR (1/22 vs 3/73). Operative times were longest in group C, with no difference in length of hospital stay among the 3 groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Early outcomes demonstrate the feasibility of mentorship for safely incorporating new neurosurgeons in sustaining and developing a tertiary-level surgical service.

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Ahmed Elawadly, Luke Smith, Alessandro Borghi, Khaled I. Abdelaziz, Adikarige Haritha Dulanka Silva, David J. Dunaway, Noor ul Owase Jeelani, Juling Ong, and Greg James

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic strip craniectomy with postoperative helmet orthosis therapy (ESCH) has emerged as a less invasive alternative to fronto-orbital remodeling for correction of trigonocephaly. However, there is no standardized objective method for monitoring morphological changes following ESCH. Such a method should be reproducible and avoid the use of ionizing radiation and general anesthesia for diagnostic imaging. The authors analyzed a number of metrics measured using 3D stereophotogrammetry (3DSPG) following ESCH, an imaging alternative that is free of ionizing radiation and can be performed on awake children.

METHODS

3DSPG images obtained at two time points (perisurgical and 1-year follow-up [FU]) of children with metopic synostosis who had undergone ESCH were analyzed and compared to 3DSPG images of age-matched control children without craniofacial anomalies. In total, 9 parameters were measured, the frontal angle and anteroposterior volume in addition to 7 novel parameters: anteroposterior area ratio, anteroposterior width ratios 1 and 2, and right and left anteroposterior diagonal ratios 30 and 60.

RESULTS

Six eligible patients were identified in the operated group, and 15 children were in the control group. All 9 parameters differed significantly between perisurgical and age-matched controls, as well as from perisurgical to FU scans. Comparison of FU scans of metopic synostosis patients who underwent surgery to scans of age-matched controls without metopic synostosis revealed that all parameters were statistically identical, with the exception of the right anteroposterior diagonal ratio 30, which was not fully corrected in the treated patients. The left anterior part of the head showed the most change in surface area maps.

CONCLUSIONS

In this pilot study, ESCH showed satisfactory results at 1 year, with improvements in all measured parameters compared to perisurgical results and normalization of 8 of 9 parameters compared to an age-matched control group. The results indicate that these parameters may be useful for craniofacial units for monitoring changes in head shape after ESCH for trigonocephaly and that 3DSPG, which avoids the use of anesthesia and ionizing radiation, is a satisfactory monitoring method.