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Open access

Large intramedullary bronchogenic cyst of the cervical spine: illustrative case

Adela Wu, Mahesh Patel, Dawn Darbonne, and Harminder Singh

BACKGROUND

Spinal bronchogenic cysts are rare entities arising from errors in embryogenesis and consisting of respiratory epithelial cells. To date, there are three other published accounts of intramedullary cysts, which were partially resected and thereby warrant close follow-up and monitoring. The authors present an illustrative case of a patient presenting with Klippel-Feil anomaly and a large intramedullary bronchogenic cyst in the upper cervical spine.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors noted fusion of the C5–6 laminae as they performed the C2–6 laminectomy. After dural opening, an intramedullary lesion with a smooth, fibrous component emerging from the dorsal spinal cord was immediately observed. The dorsal spinal columns were not involved with this cyst wall or the other smaller cysts, which all contained gray fluid. The cyst walls were partially resected and sent for pathological examination.

LESSONS

Spinal developmental cysts are associated with other anatomical anomalies, such as Klippel-Feil anomaly, arising from errors in embryogenesis. For intramedullary lesions such as this patient’s bronchogenic cyst, partial resection and decompression are the goals of surgery because aggressive debulking may lead to neurological compromise. Close imaging follow-up is warranted.

Free access

Risk of secondary neoplasms after external-beam radiation therapy treatment of pediatric low-grade gliomas: a SEER analysis, 1973–2015

Adrian J. Rodrigues, Michael C. Jin, Adela Wu, Hriday P. Bhambhvani, Gordon Li, and Gerald A. Grant

OBJECTIVE

Although past studies have associated external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with higher incidences of secondary neoplasms (SNs), its effect on SN development from pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs), defined as WHO grade I and II gliomas of astrocytic or oligodendrocytic origin, is not well understood. Utilizing a national cancer registry, the authors sought to characterize the risk of SN development after EBRT treatment of pediatric LGG.

METHODS

A total of 1245 pediatric patient (aged 0–17 years) records from 1973 to 2015 were assembled from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Univariable and multivariable subdistribution hazard regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic impact of demographic, tumor, and treatment-related covariates. Propensity score matching was used to balance baseline characteristics. Cumulative incidence analyses measured the time to, and rate of, SN development, stratified by receipt of EBRT and controlled for competing mortality risk. The Fine and Gray semiparametric model was used to estimate future SN risk in EBRT- and non–EBRT-treated pediatric patients.

RESULTS

In this study, 366 patients received EBRT and 879 did not. Forty-six patients developed SNs after an LGG diagnosis, and 27 of these patients received EBRT (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.90–6.95; p < 0.001). For patients alive 30 years from the initial LGG diagnosis, the absolute risk of SN development in the EBRT-treated cohort was 12.61% (95% CI 8.31–13.00) compared with 4.99% (95% CI 4.38–12.23) in the non–EBRT-treated cohort (p = 0.013). Cumulative incidence curves that were adjusted for competing events still demonstrated higher rates of SN development in the EBRT-treated patients with LGGs. After matching across available covariates and again adjusting for the competing risk of mortality, a clear association between EBRT and SN development remained (subhazard ratio 2.26, 95% CI 1.21–4.20; p = 0.010).

CONCLUSIONS

Radiation therapy was associated with an increased risk of future SNs for pediatric patients surviving LGGs. These data suggest that the long-term implications of EBRT should be considered when making treatment decisions for this patient population

Free access

Efficacy and toxicity of particle radiotherapy in WHO grade II and grade III meningiomas: a systematic review

Adela Wu, Michael C. Jin, Antonio Meola, Hong-nei Wong, and Steven D. Chang

OBJECTIVE

Adjuvant radiotherapy has become a common addition to the management of high-grade meningiomas, as immediate treatment with radiation following resection has been associated with significantly improved outcomes. Recent investigations into particle therapy have expanded into the management of high-risk meningiomas. Here, the authors systematically review studies on the efficacy and utility of particle-based radiotherapy in the management of high-grade meningioma.

METHODS

A literature search was developed by first defining the population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, and study design (PICOS). A search strategy was designed for each of three electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, and Scopus. Data extraction was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Outcomes of interest included local disease control, overall survival, and toxicity, which were compared with historical data on photon-based therapies.

RESULTS

Eleven retrospective studies including 240 patients with atypical (WHO grade II) and anaplastic (WHO grade III) meningioma undergoing particle radiation therapy were identified. Five of the 11 studies included in this systematic review focused specifically on WHO grade II and III meningiomas; the others also included WHO grade I meningioma. Across all of the studies, the median follow-up ranged from 6 to 145 months. Local control rates for high-grade meningiomas ranged from 46.7% to 86% by the last follow-up or at 5 years. Overall survival rates ranged from 0% to 100% with better prognoses for atypical than for malignant meningiomas. Radiation necrosis was the most common adverse effect of treatment, occurring in 3.9% of specified cases.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite the lack of randomized prospective trials, this review of existing retrospective studies suggests that particle therapy, whether an adjuvant or a stand-alone treatment, confers survival benefit with a relatively low risk for severe treatment-derived toxicity compared to standard photon-based therapy. However, additional controlled studies are needed.

Restricted access

Improvement of syrinx resolution after tonsillar cautery in pediatric patients with Chiari Type I malformation

Kevin M. Stanko, Young M. Lee, Jennifer Rios, Adela Wu, Giovanna W. Sobrinho, Jon D. Weingart, Eric M. Jackson, Edward S. Ahn, Kaisorn L. Chaichana, and George I. Jallo

OBJECT

Chiari Type I malformation involves caudal displacement of the cerebellar tonsils below the foramen magnum, which obstructs normal cerebrospinal fluid flow and increases intracranial pressure. Certain aspects of its surgical treatment remain controversial. A retrospective study was conducted to assess the efficacy of tonsillar cautery on syrinx resolution among pediatric Chiari patients undergoing cervicomedullary decompression.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort study was performed for patients 0–18 years of age who underwent surgical correction for Chiari Type I malformation with syrinx between 1995 and 2013. Basic demographic information was collected as well as data for preoperative symptoms, prior surgical history, perioperative characteristics, and postsurgical outcomes. Descriptive statistics were performed in addition to bivariate analyses. Candidate predictor variables were identified based on an association with tonsillar cautery with p < 0.10. Forward stepwise likelihood ratio was used to select candidate predictors in a binary logistic regression model (Pin = 0.05, Pout = 0.10) most strongly associated with the outcome.

RESULTS

A total of 171 patients with Chiari Type I malformation with syrinx were identified, and 43 underwent tonsillar cautery. Patients who underwent tonsillar cautery had 6.11 times greater odds of improvement in their syrinx (95% CI 2.57–14.49, p < 0.001). There was no effect of tonsillar cautery on increased perioperative complications as well as the need for repeat decompressions.

CONCLUSIONS

Tonsillar cautery is safe and effective in the treatment of Chiari Type I malformation with syrinx and may decrease time to syrinx resolution after cervicomedullary decompression. Tonsillar cautery does not increase postoperative complications in pediatric Chiari Type I malformation patients.

Free access

An integrated risk model stratifying seizure risk following brain tumor resection among seizure-naive patients without antiepileptic prophylaxis

Michael C. Jin, Jonathon J. Parker, Laura M. Prolo, Adela Wu, Casey H. Halpern, Gordon Li, John K. Ratliff, Summer S. Han, Stephen L. Skirboll, and Gerald A. Grant

OBJECTIVE

The natural history of seizure risk after brain tumor resection is not well understood. Identifying seizure-naive patients at highest risk for postoperative seizure events remains a clinical need. In this study, the authors sought to develop a predictive modeling strategy for anticipating postcraniotomy seizures after brain tumor resection.

METHODS

The IBM Watson Health MarketScan Claims Database was canvassed for antiepileptic drug (AED)– and seizure-naive patients who underwent brain tumor resection (2007–2016). The primary event of interest was short-term seizure risk (within 90 days postdischarge). The secondary event of interest was long-term seizure risk during the follow-up period. To model early-onset and long-term postdischarge seizure risk, a penalized logistic regression classifier and multivariable Cox regression model, respectively, were built, which integrated patient-, tumor-, and hospitalization-specific features. To compare empirical seizure rates, equally sized cohort tertiles were created and labeled as low risk, medium risk, and high risk.

RESULTS

Of 5470 patients, 983 (18.0%) had a postdischarge-coded seizure event. The integrated binary classification approach for predicting early-onset seizures outperformed models using feature subsets (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.751, hospitalization features only AUC = 0.667, patient features only AUC = 0.603, and tumor features only AUC = 0.694). Held-out validation patient cases that were predicted by the integrated model to have elevated short-term risk more frequently developed seizures within 90 days of discharge (24.1% high risk vs 3.8% low risk, p < 0.001). Compared with those in the low-risk tertile by the long-term seizure risk model, patients in the medium-risk and high-risk tertiles had 2.13 (95% CI 1.45–3.11) and 6.24 (95% CI 4.40–8.84) times higher long-term risk for postdischarge seizures. Only patients predicted as high risk developed status epilepticus within 90 days of discharge (1.7% high risk vs 0% low risk, p = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors have presented a risk-stratified model that accurately predicted short- and long-term seizure risk in patients who underwent brain tumor resection, which may be used to stratify future study of postoperative AED prophylaxis in highest-risk patient subpopulations.

Free access

Postoperative symptoms of psychosis after deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson’s disease

Azam A. Qureshi, Jennifer J. Cheng, Abraham N. Sunshine, Adela Wu, Gregory M. Pontone, Nicola Cascella, Frederick A. Lenz, Stephen E. Grill, and William S. Anderson

OBJECT

Cases of postoperative psychosis in Parkinson’s disease patients receiving deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment have previously been published. However, the magnitude of symptom incidence and the clinical risk factors are currently unknown. This retrospective study sheds light on these issues by investigating psychosis in a group of 128 Parkinson’s disease patients who received DBS implants.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was performed to obtain surgery dates, follow-up clinic visit dates, and associated stimulation parameter settings (contacts in use and the polarity of each along with stimulation voltage, frequency, and pulse width) for each patient. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale II Thought Disorder scores, used as a clinical assessment tool to evaluate the presence of psychosis at each visit, were also collected. The data were compiled into a database and analyzed.

RESULTS

The lifetime incidence of psychosis in this cohort of patients was 28.1%. The data suggest that risk of psychosis remains fairly constant throughout the first 5 years after implantation of a DBS system and that patients older at the time of receiving the first DBS implant are not only more likely to develop psychosis, but also to develop symptoms sooner than their younger counterparts. Further analysis provides evidence that psychosis is largely independent of the clinically used electrode contact and of stimulation parameters prior to psychosis onset.

CONCLUSIONS

Although symptoms of psychosis are widely seen in patients with Parkinson’s disease in the years following stimulator placement, results of the present suggest that most psychoses occurring postoperatively are likely independent of implantation and stimulation settings.

Full access

Retrosigmoid approach for glycerin rhizotomy in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia without overt arterial compression: updated case series

Timothy Y. Kim, Christopher M. Jackson, Yuanxuan Xia, Leila A. Mashouf, Kisha K. Patel, Eileen S. Kim, Alice L. Hung, Adela Wu, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Matthew T. Bender, Chetan Bettegowda, John Y. K. Lee, and Michael Lim

OBJECTIVE

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a neuropathic pain disorder characterized by severe, lancinating facial pain that is commonly treated with neuropathic medication, percutaneous rhizotomy, and/or microvascular decompression (MVD). Patients who are not found to have distinct arterial compression during MVD present a management challenge. In 2013, the authors reported on a small case series of such patients in whom glycerin was injected intraoperatively into the cisternal segment of the trigeminal nerve. The objective of the authors’ present study was to report their updated experience with this technique to further validate this novel approach.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of data obtained in patients in whom glycerin was directly injected into the inferior third of the cisternal portion of the trigeminal nerve. Seventy-four patients, including 14 patients from the authors’ prior study, were identified, and demographic information, intraoperative findings, postoperative course, and complications were recorded. Fisher’s exact test, unpaired t-tests, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves using Mantel log-rank test were used to compare the 74 patients with a cohort of 476 patients who received standard MVD by the same surgeon.

RESULTS

The 74 patients who underwent MVD and glycerin injection had an average follow-up of 19.1 ± 18.0 months, and the male/female ratio was 1:2.9. In 33 patients (44.6%), a previous intervention for TN had failed. On average, patients had an improvement in the Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity score from 4.1 ± 0.4 before surgery to 2.1 ± 1.2 after surgery. Pain improvement after the surgery was documented in 95.9% of patients. Thirteen patients (17.6%) developed burning pain following surgery. Five patients developed complications (6.7%), including incisional infection, facial palsy, CSF leak, and hearing deficit, all of which were minor.

CONCLUSIONS

Intraoperative injection of glycerin into the trigeminal nerve is a generally safe and potentially effective treatment for TN when no distinct site of arterial compression is identified during surgery or when decompression of the nerve is deemed to be inadequate.