✓There are many potential risks associated with spinal deformity correction procedures including transient and/or permanent neurological deficits. Typically, neurological deficits caused by the surgical correction of spinal kyphosis occur acutely during surgery or immediately after surgery. Delayed postoperative neurological deficits are extremely rare.
The authors report a case of delayed neurological deficit that occurred 48 hours after surgical correction of thoracic hyperkyphosis. An 18-year-old man with myotonic dystrophy presented with a 110° T7–L1 kyphosis. The patient underwent an uneventful two-stage correction procedure of the hyperkyphotic deformity. First, anterior discectomies and fusion were performed from T-7 to L-1 using rib autograft, and all segmental vessels were preserved. Subsequently, on the same day, the patient underwent posterior Smith–Petersen osteotomies and T7–L2 pedicle screw fixation. Intact somatosensory and motor evoked potentials were maintained throughout both operations. Postoperatively, he remained neurologically intact without sequelae for nearly 48 hours. On postoperative Day 2, the patient developed delayed monoplegia of the left leg and sensory level loss below T-10.
Medical management enabled complete reversal of the patient's monoplegia and sensory loss. At 2-year follow-up, the patient had no adverse neurological sequelae.
In this case, a delayed postoperative neurological deficit occurred following spinal hyperkyphosis correction. The authors discuss the possible etiological mechanisms behind this complication and suggest strategies for its management.