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Mario Francesco Fraioli and Laura Moschettoni

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Abtin Tabaee, Vijay K. Anand, Paolo Cappabianca, Aldo Stamm, Felice Esposito and Theodore H. Schwartz

Object

Spontaneous meningoencephaloceles of the lateral sphenoid sinus are rare lesions that are hypothesized to result from persistence of the lateral craniopharyngeal canal. Prior reports of the management of this lesion have been limited by its relative rarity. The objective of this paper is to report the theoretical etiology, surgical technique, and outcomes in patients undergoing endoscopic repair of spontaneous meningoencephalocele of the sphenoid sinus.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective review of a multiinstitutional series of 13 cases involving patients who underwent endoscopic repair of spontaneous meningoencephalocele of the lateral sphenoid sinus. The surgical technique and pathophysiological considerations are discussed.

Results

The clinical manifestations included CSF rhinorrhea (85%), chronic headache (77%), and a history of meningitis (15%). The endoscopic approaches to the lateral sphenoid sinus were transnasal (39%), transpterygoid (23%), and transethmoid (39%). Two patients (8%) had postoperative CSF leaks, one of which closed spontaneously and one of which required revision endoscopic closure. All patients were free of leak at most recent follow-up. One patient experienced postoperative meningitis in the early postoperative period.

Conclusions

Endoscopic endonasal closure is an effective modality in the treatment of spontaneous meningoencephaloceles of the lateral sphenoid sinus. If the sphenoid sinus has extensive lateral pneumatization, adequate exposure may require a transpterygoid approach.

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Abtin Tabaee, Vijay K. Anand, Yolanda Barrón, David H. Hiltzik, Seth M. Brown, Ashutosh Kacker, Madhu Mazumdar and Theodore H. Schwartz

Object

Surgery on the pituitary gland is increasingly being performed through an endoscopic approach. However, there is little published data on its safety and relative advantages over traditional microscope-based approaches. Published reports are limited by small sample size and nonrandomized study design. A meta-analysis allows for a description of the impact of endoscopic surgery on short-term outcomes.

Methods

The authors performed retrospective review of data from their institution as well as a systematic review of the literature. The pooled data were analyzed for descriptive statistics on short-term outcomes.

Results

Nine studies (821 patients) met inclusion criteria. Overall, the pooled rate of gross tumor removal was 78% (95% CI 67–89%). Hormone resolution was achieved in 81% (95% CI 71–91%) of adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting tumors, 84% (95% CI 76–92%) of growth hormone secreting tumors, and 82% (95% CI 70–94%) of prolactin secreting tumors. The pooled complication rates were 2% (95% CI 0–4%) for CSF leak and 1% (95% CI 0–2%) for permanent diabetes insipidus. There were 2 deaths reported in the literature that were both related to vascular injury, giving an overall mortality rate of 0.24%.

Conclusions

The results of this meta-analysis support the safety and short-term efficacy of endoscopic pituitary surgery. Future studies with long-term follow-up are required to determine tumor control.