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Abraham Lieberman, Leroy Dart, and Raymond Bennett

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Paul R. Cooper, Gleb N. Budzilovich, Peter H. Berczeller, Abraham Lieberman, and Arthur Battista

✓ Two cases of metastatic glioma with hypercalcemia are presented. Elevated serum calcium secondary to metastatic central nervous system tumors may be more common than is generally supposed, and the symptoms of hypercalcemia may be mistaken for those of increased intracranial pressure.

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Oleg Kopyov, Deane Jacques, Christopher Duma, Galen Buckwalter, Alex Kopyov, Abraham Lieberman, and Brian Copcutt

✓ The outcome of radiofrequency-guided posteroventral medial pallidotomy was investigated in 29 patients with recalcitrant Parkinson's disease. Extracellular recordings were obtained in the target region to differentiate the internal from the external globus pallidus, and distinct waveforms were recorded in each region. Stimulation of the target site further verified the lesion location. Of the 29 patients treated during the course of 1 year, none showed any adverse side effects (such as hemianopsia or hemiparesis) from the procedure. Significant and immediate improvement in motor involvement (dyskinesia, rigidity, dystonia, freezing, and tremor) was observed as measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Patients experienced improvements in their condition as measured on a self-rating scale, and their ability to perform the activities of daily living was also significantly improved. Although the onset and duration of the effect of a single dose of levodopa did not change, the number of hours in an “off” state of dyskinesia per day was significantly decreased. These results provide further evidence, in a large group of patients, that posteroventral medial pallidotomy results in significant control of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease with a minimum of undesirable side effects.

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Zaman Mirzadeh, Kristina Chapple, Margaret Lambert, Virgilio G. Evidente, Padma Mahant, Maria C. Ospina, Johan Samanta, Guillermo Moguel-Cobos, Naomi Salins, Abraham Lieberman, Alexander I. Tröster, Rohit Dhall, and Francisco A. Ponce


Recent studies show that deep brain stimulation can be performed safely and accurately without microelectrode recording ortest stimulation but with the patient under general anesthesia. The procedure couples techniques for direct anatomical targeting on MRI with intraoperative imaging to verify stereotactic accuracy. However, few authors have examined the clinical outcomes of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients after this procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PD outcomes following “asleep” deep brain stimulation in the globus pallidus internus (GPi).


The authors prospectively examined all consecutive patients with advanced PD who underwent bilateral GPi electrode placement while under general anesthesia. Intraoperative CT was used to assess lead placement accuracy. The primary outcome measure was the change in the off-medication Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor score 6 months after surgery. Secondary outcomes included effects on the 39-Item Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) scores, on-medication motor scores, and levodopa equivalent daily dose. Lead locations, active contact sites, stimulation parameters, and adverse events were documented.


Thirty-five patients (24 males, 11 females) had a mean age of 61 years at lead implantation. The mean radial error off plan was 0.8 mm. Mean coordinates for the active contact were 21.4 mm lateral, 4.7 mm anterior, and 0.4 mm superior to the midcommissural point. The mean off-medication motor score improved from 48.4 at baseline to 28.9 (40.3% improvement) at 6 months (p < 0.001). The PDQ-39 scores improved (50.3 vs 42.0; p = 0.03), and the levodopa equivalent daily dose was reduced (1207 vs 1035 mg; p = 0.004). There were no significant adverse events.


Globus pallidus internus leads placed with the patient under general anesthesia by using direct anatomical targeting resulted in significantly improved outcomes as measured by the improvement in the off-medication motor score at 6 months after surgery.