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Aaron S. Dumont and Avery J. Evans

Thetreatment of stroke has rapidly evolved over the past decade, particularly as data concerning the natural history have emerged and endovascular treatment options have matured. Therapies for acute stroke have expanded as intraarterial thrombolysis and mechanical clot retrieval have been validated. Furthermore, angioplasty and stenting of intra- and extracranial vessels have evolved with the development of new devices coupled with increasing operator experience. Endovascular therapy is now a widely accepted treatment option for cerebral ischemia in many clinical situations.

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Nader Pouratian, Neal F. Kassell and Aaron S. Dumont

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a lingering cause of significant mortality and morbidity rates in contemporary society. Despite its established burden, considerably less investigative attention has been devoted to the study of ICH than other forms of stroke. Only a limited number of clinical studies have been performed to examine the surgical (both craniotomy and minimally invasive) and medical management of patients with ICH. No consistently efficacious strategies have been identified through such investigations. Limitations in study design and execution have universally impaired the interpretation and impact of available data. Management of ICH unfortunately remains heterogeneous across institutions, and it continues to suffer from the lack of proven medical and surgical effectiveness. Urgently needed are further prospective randomized controlled trials in which investigators consider the shortcomings of previous endeavors in the management of ICH. In the present article the authors review the current management practices of ICH, discuss the controlled trials, and highlight recent trials and future avenues of further study.

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Editorial

Unruptured aneurysms

Aaron S. Dumont, Giuseppe Lanzino and Neal F. Kassell

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John D. Nerva, Peter S. Amenta and Aaron S. Dumont

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R. Webster Crowley, Ricky Medel and Aaron S. Dumont

Occipital artery to posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypasses remain an important tool for cerebrovascular neurosurgeons, particularly in the management of complex aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery requiring proximal occlusion or trapping. The procedure requires meticulous technique and attention to detail. The authors outline their technique for accomplishing this bypass emphasizing nuances for complication avoidance.

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Roberto C. Heros

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Aaron S. Dumont, R. Webster Crowley and Hian K. Yeoh

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R. Webster Crowley, Ricky Medel and Aaron S. Dumont

✓As a leading cause of death and disability in patients across the world, stroke is a problem that plagues both neurosurgeons and neurologists alike. Whether a result of atherosclerosis, moyamoya disease, or a complication in the treatment of a complex intracranial aneurysm, cerebrovascular occlusion can have devastating effects on patients. For nearly half a century neurosurgeons have searched for safer, more effective ways to increase the amount of blood flow to ischemic brain tissue. From the first extracranial–intracranial bypasses to the recent technological advancements seen with endovascular therapy, cerebral revascularization techniques have been constantly evolving. Over the years cerebral ischemia has gone from a condition that was previously considered surgically untreatable, to a condition with several viable options for prevention and treatment. In this paper the authors discuss the historical evolution of treatment for cerebrovascular occlusive disease.

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Ricky Medel, R. Webster Crowley and Aaron S. Dumont

Endovascular cerebral revascularization is becoming a frequently used alternative to surgery for the treatment of atherosclerotic disease, especially in the intracranial circulation where options are limited. Recent literature regarding the equivalent efficacy of carotid artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy in certain patient populations, as well as the recognition of the significant risk for recurrent stroke posed by intracranial lesions, will only serve to amplify this trend. Hyperperfusion syndrome has been well documented in the setting of carotid endarterectomy; however, a paucity of literature exists regarding the incidence, pathophysiology, and management as it relates to percutaneous interventions. The purpose of this review is to outline the current state of knowledge, with particular attention to the distinct attributes of endovascular treatment that would be expected to modify the course of hyperperfusion syndrome.