Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 12 items for

  • Author or Editor: A. Samy Youssef x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

A. Samy Youssef and Angela E. Downes

Object

Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring has become an integral part of vestibular schwannoma surgery. The aim of this article was to review the different techniques of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in vestibular schwannoma surgery, identify the clinical impact of certain pathognomonic patterns on postoperative outcomes of facial nerve function and hearing preservation, and highlight the role of postoperative medications in improving delayed cranial nerve dysfunction in the different reported series.

Methods

The authors performed a review of the literature regarding intraoperative monitoring in acoustic/vestibular schwannoma surgery. The different clinical series representing different monitoring techniques were reviewed. All the data from clinical series were analyzed in a comprehensive and comparative model.

Results

Intraoperative brainstem auditory evoked potential monitoring, direct cochlear nerve action potential monitoring, and facial nerve electromyography are the main tools used to assess the functional integrity of an anatomically intact cranial nerve. The identification of pathognomonic brainstem auditory evoked potential and electromyography patterns has been correlated with postoperative functional outcome. Recently, perioperative administration of intravenous hydroxyethyl starch and nimodipine as vasoactive and neuroprotective agents was shown to improve vestibular schwannoma functional outcome in few reported studies.

Conclusions

Recent advances in electrophysiological technology have considerably contributed to improvement in functional outcome of vestibular neuroma surgery in terms of hearing preservation and facial nerve paresis. Perioperative intravenous nimodipine and hydroxyethyl starch may be valuable additions to surgery.

Full access

Caleb R. Lippman, Caple A. Spence, A. Samy Youssef, and David W. Cahill

Object

Adult scoliosis is a pathologically different entity from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The curves are more rigid, and rotational deformity and multilevel sagittal vertebral slippages compound the coronal malalignment. To correct these deformities, a surgical anterior release procedure is usually required, as well as posterior instrumentation-assisted fusion. This exposes the patient to the risks of a second procedure and of a thoracotomy or laparotomy. To decrease these risks, the authors have performed an anterior release, posterior release, and reduction via a posterior-only approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze quantitatively the degree of pre- and postoperative coronal deformity, the extent of correction, and related complications.

Methods

Data obtained in 20 patients with adult scoliosis were retrospectively studied. Patients presented with persistent back or lower-extremity pain, progressive deformity, or progressive neurological deficit. Sixteen patients underwent Gill-type laminectomy, radical discectomy (including fracture of any anterior and lateral osteophytes), and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) of all apical and adjacent segments. One to four anterior release procedures were performed in each patient. Posterior instrumentation was placed over three to 15 levels. Autograft was obtained from the laminectomy sites and posterior iliac crest for fusion. There were no deaths; all patients were followed for a minimum of 1 year. The mean coronal Cobb angle improved from 36° to 14.7°. All spondylolisthetic lesions were reduced to at least Grade I. At the most recent follow-up examination, evidence of fusion was demonstrated in all patients. Reoperation for adjacent-segment failure, cephalad to the highest level of fusion, was required in two cases.

Conclusions

In many cases of adult scoliosis, a satisfactory multiplanar correction may be obtained via a single posterior approach and by using extended PLIF techniques. Cephalad adjacent-segment failure remains a significant problem in patients with osteoporosis, and routine extension of posterior instrumentation to the upper thoracic spine should be considered in these cases.

Full access

Jun Muto, Daniel M. Prevedello, and Ricardo L. Carrau

Restricted access

Jamie J. Van Gompel, Jaymin Patel, Chris Danner, A. Nanhua Zhang, A. A. Samy Youssef, Harry R. van Loveren, and Siviero Agazzi

Object

Tinnitus is a known presenting symptom of acoustic neuromas, but little is known about the impact of observation or treatment on tinnitus. Most patients experience improvement with treatment, while others may worsen. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the overall impact of observation and treatment on tinnitus outcome in patients with acoustic tumors.

Methods

Data from the 2007–2008 Acoustic Neuroma Association survey were used. Tinnitus severity was graded both at presentation and at last follow-up for all patients questioned. This data set was analyzed using the Student t-test and a linear regression model adjusted for possible confounders.

Results

Overall there were more patients receiving intervention (n = 1138) for their acoustic neuromas than observation (n = 289). Presenting tumor size positively correlated with tinnitus severity score. Regardless of treatment (microsurgery or stereotactic radiosurgery), tinnitus improved at last follow-up and worsened in those who were observed (p = 0.02). When comparing microsurgical options, retrosigmoid and translabyrinthine resection improved tinnitus symptoms (both p < 0.01). Stereotactic radiosurgery had a treatment effect similar to microsurgery.

Conclusions

Presenting tinnitus severity correlates strongly with tumor size. Furthermore, regardless of treatment, there appears to be an overall reduction in tinnitus severity for all forms of microsurgery and stereotactic radiosurgery. Importantly, observation leads to a worsening in symptomatic tinnitus and therefore should be weighed in the treatment recommendation.

Full access

Jacob L. Freeman, Raghuram Sampath, Steven Craig Quattlebaum, Michael A. Casey, Zach A. Folzenlogen, Vijay R. Ramakrishnan, and A. Samy Youssef

OBJECTIVE

The endoscopic endonasal transmaxillary transpterygoid (TMTP) approach has been the gateway for lateral skull base exposure. Removal of the cartilaginous eustachian tube (ET) and lateral mobilization of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are technically demanding adjunctive steps that are used to access the petroclival region. The gained expansion of the deep working corridor provided by these maneuvers has yet to be quantified.

METHODS

The TMTP approach with cartilaginous ET removal and ICA mobilization was performed in 5 adult cadaveric heads (10 sides). Accessible portions of the petrous apex were drilled during the following 3 stages: 1) before ET removal, 2) after ET removal but before ICA mobilization, and 3) after ET removal and ICA repositioning. Resection volumes were calculated using 3D reconstructions generated from thin-slice CT scans obtained before and after each step of the dissection.

RESULTS

The average petrous temporal bone resection volumes at each stage were 0.21 cm3, 0.71 cm3, and 1.32 cm3 (p < 0.05, paired t-test). Without ET removal, inferior and superior access to the petrous apex was limited. Furthermore, without ICA mobilization, drilling was confined to the inferior two-thirds of the petrous apex. After mobilization, the resection was extended superiorly through the upper extent of the petrous apex.

CONCLUSIONS

The transpterygoid corridor to the petroclival region is maximally expanded by the resection of the cartilaginous ET and mobilization of the paraclival ICA. These added maneuvers expanded the deep window almost 6 times and provided more lateral access to the petroclival region with a maximum volume of 1.5 cm3. This may result in the ability to resect small-to-moderate sized intradural petroclival lesions up to that volume. Larger lesions may better be approached through an open transcranial approach.

Restricted access

Justin M. Sweeney, Rohit Vasan, Harry R. van Loveren, A. Samy Youssef, and Siviero Agazzi

The object of this study was to describe a unique method of managing ventriculostomy catheters in patients on antithrombotic therapy following endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The authors retrospectively reviewed 3 cases in which a unique method of ventriculostomy management was used to successfully avoid catheter-related hemorrhage while the patient was on dual antiplatelet therapy. In this setting, ventriculostomy catheters are left in place and fixed to the calvarium with titanium straps effectively ligating them. The catheter is divided and the distal end is removed. The proximal end can be directly connected to a distal shunt system during this stage or at a later date if necessary. The method described in this report provided a variety of management options for patients requiring external ventricular drainage for subarachnoid hemorrhage. No patient suffered catheter-related hemorrhage.

This preliminary report demonstrates a safe and effective method for discontinuing external ventricular drainage and/or placing a ventriculoperitoneal shunt in the setting of active coagulopathy or antithrombotic therapy. The technique avoids both the risk of hemorrhage related to catheter removal and reinsertion and the thromboembolic risks associated with the reversal of antithrombotic therapy. Some aneurysm centers have avoided the use of stent-assisted coiling in cases of ruptured aneurysms to circumvent ventriculostomy-related complications; however, the method described herein should allow continued use of this important treatment option in ruptured aneurysm cases. Further investigation in a larger cohort with long-term follow-up is necessary to define the associated risks of infection using this method.

Full access

Soliman Oushy, Stefan H. Sillau, Douglas E. Ney, Denise M. Damek, A. Samy Youssef, Kevin O. Lillehei, and D. Ryan Ormond

OBJECTIVE

Prophylactic use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in seizure-naïve brain tumor patients remains a topic of debate. This study aimed to characterize a subset of patients at highest risk for new-onset perioperative seizures (i.e., intraoperative and postoperative seizures occurring within 30 days of surgery) who may benefit from prophylactic AEDs.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study of all adults who had undergone tumor resection or biopsy at the authors’ institution between January 1, 2004, and June 31, 2015. All patients with a history of preoperative seizures, posterior fossa tumors, pituitary tumors, and parasellar tumors were excluded. A control group was matched to the seizure patients according to age (± 0 years). Demographic data, clinical status, operative data, and postoperative course data were collected and analyzed.

RESULTS

Among 1693 patients who underwent tumor resection or biopsy, 549 (32.4%) had never had a preoperative seizure. Of these 549 patients, 25 (4.6%) suffered a perioperative seizure (Group 1). A total of 524 patients (95.4%) who remained seizure free were matched to Group 1 according to age (± 0 years), resulting in 132 control patients (Group 2), at an approximate ratio of 1:5. There were no differences between the patient groups in terms of age, sex, race, relationship status, and neurological deficits on presentation. Histological subtype (infiltrating glioma vs meningioma vs other, p = 0.041), intradural tumor location (p < 0.001), intraoperative cortical stimulation (p = 0.004), and extent of resection (less than gross total, p = 0.002) were associated with the occurrence of perioperative seizures.

CONCLUSIONS

While most seizure-naïve brain tumor patients do not benefit from perioperative seizure prophylaxis, such treatment should be considered in high-risk patients with supratentorial intradural tumors, in patients undergoing intraoperative cortical stimulation, and in patients in whom subtotal resection is likely.

Restricted access

Siviero Agazzi, Stanley Chang, Mitchell D. Drucker, A. Samy Youssef, and Harry R. Van Loveren

The authors describe the case of a 76-year-old man in whom reversible sudden blindness developed after a percutaneous balloon compression rhizotomy for trigeminal neuralgia. His eye became tense and swollen with intraocular pressures of 66 mm Hg. Acetazolamide was administered, and visual acuity (20/50) returned within several months. Despite correct needle placement, the intraocular pressure rose acutely because of transient occlusion of the orbital venous drainage through the cavernous sinus; this was reversed with aggressive medical treatment.

In cadaveric studies (dried skull and formalin-fixed head), the authors studied the mechanism of optic nerve penetration. Their findings showed that excessive cranial angulation of the needle with penetration of the inferior orbital fissure can directly traumatize the optic nerve in the orbital apex. Direct trauma to the optic nerve can therefore be prevented by early and repeated confirmation of the needle trajectory with lateral fluoroscopy before penetration of the foramen ovale.

Free access

Mohamed A. Labib, Evgenii Belykh, Claudio Cavallo, Xiaochun Zhao, Daniel M. Prevedello, Ricardo L. Carrau, Andrew S. Little, Mauro A. T. Ferreira, Mark C. Preul, A. Samy Youssef, and Peter Nakaji

OBJECTIVE

The ventral jugular foramen and the infrapetrous region are difficult to access through conventional lateral and posterolateral approaches. Endoscopic endonasal approaches to this region are obstructed by the eustachian tube (ET). This study presents a novel strategy for mobilizing the ET while preserving its integrity. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons with previous ET management paradigms are also presented.

METHODS

Ten dry skulls were analyzed. Four ET management strategies were sequentially performed on a total of 6 sides of cadaveric head specimens. Four measurement groups were generated: in group A, the ET was intact and not mobilized; in group B, the ET was mobilized inferolaterally; in group C, the ET underwent anterolateral mobilization; and in group D, the ET was resected. ET range of mobilization, surgical exposure area, and surgical freedom were measured and compared among the groups.

RESULTS

Wide exposure of the infrapetrous region and jugular foramen was achieved by removing the pterygoid process, unroofing the cartilaginous ET up to the level of the posterior aspect of the foramen ovale, and detaching the ET from the skull base and soft palate. Anterolateral mobilization of the ET facilitated significantly more retraction (a 126% increase) of the ET than inferolateral mobilization (mean ± SD: 20.8 ± 11.2 mm vs 9.2 ± 3.6 mm [p = 0.02]). Compared with group A, groups C and D had enhanced surgical exposure (142.5% [1176.9 ± 935.7 mm2] and 155.9% [1242.0 ± 1096.2 mm2], respectively, vs 485.4 ± 377.6 mm2 for group A [both p = 0.02]). Furthermore, group C had a significantly larger surgical exposure area than group B (p = 0.02). No statistically significant difference was found between the area of exposure obtained by ET removal and anterolateral mobilization. Anterolateral mobilization of the ET resulted in a 39.5% increase in surgical freedom toward the exocranial jugular foramen compared with that obtained through inferolateral mobilization of the ET (67.2° ± 20.5° vs 48.1° ± 6.7° [p = 0.047]) and a 65.4% increase compared with that afforded by an intact ET position (67.2° ± 20.5° vs 40.6° ± 14.3° [p = 0.03]).

CONCLUSIONS

Anterolateral mobilization of the ET provides excellent access to the ventral jugular foramen and infrapetrous region. The surgical exposure obtained is superior to that achieved with other ET management strategies and is comparable to that obtained by ET resection.

Restricted access

Mohamed A. Labib, Xiaochun Zhao, Lena Mary Houlihan, Irakliy Abramov, Joshua S. Catapano, Komal Naeem, Mark C. Preul, A. Samy Youssef, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

The combined petrosal (CP) approach has been traditionally used to resect petroclival meningioma (PCM). The pretemporal transcavernous anterior petrosal (PTAP) approach has emerged as an alternative. A quantitative comparison of both approaches has not been made. This anatomical study compared the surgical corridors afforded by both approaches and identified key elements of the approach selection process.

METHODS

Twelve cadaveric specimens were dissected, and 10 were used for morphometric analysis. Groups A and B (n = 5 in each) underwent the CP and PTAP approaches, respectively. The area of drilled clivus, lengths of cranial nerves (CNs) II–X, length of posterior circulation vessels, surgical area of exposure of the brainstem, and angles of attack anterior and posterior to a common target were measured and compared.

RESULTS

The area of drilled clivus was significantly greater in group A than group B (mean ± SD 88.7 ± 17.1 mm2 vs 48.4 ± 17.9 mm2, p < 0.01). Longer segments of ipsilateral CN IV (52.4 ± 2.33 mm vs 46.5 ± 3.71 mm, p < 0.02), CN IX, and CN X (9.91 ± 3.21 mm vs 0.00 ± 0.00 mm, p < 0.01) were exposed in group A than group B. Shorter portions of CN II (9.31 ± 1.28 mm vs 17.6 ± 6.89 mm, p < 0.02) and V1 (26.9 ± 4.62 mm vs 32.4 ± 1.93 mm, p < 0.03) were exposed in group A than group B. Longer segments of ipsilateral superior cerebellar artery (SCA) were exposed in group A than group B (36.0 ± 4.91 mm vs 25.8 ± 3.55 mm, p < 0.02), but there was less exposure of contralateral SCA (0.00 ± 0.00 mm vs 7.95 ± 3.33 mm, p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between groups with regard to the combined area of the exposed cerebral peduncles and pons (p = 0.75). Although exposure of the medulla was limited, group A had significantly greater exposure of the medulla than group B (p < 0.01). Finally, group A had a smaller anterior angle of attack than group B (24.1° ± 5.62° vs 34.8° ± 7.51°, p < 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first study to quantitatively identify the advantages and limitations of the CP and PTAP approaches from an anatomical perspective. Understanding these data will aid in designing maximally effective yet minimally invasive approaches to PCM.