Cerebrospinal fluid leakage following meningomyelocele surgery is a frequent complication in the wound-healing period and is associated with wound dehiscence. CSF loss can cause severe hyponatremia, especially in the newborn and early infancy periods when dietary sodium content is relatively low. Hyponatremia in the newborn period can result in adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. In addition, hyponatremia’s cerebral effects can increase complications in neurosurgery patients. The authors present the case of a newborn in whom CSF leakage from the operative site and severe hyponatremia developed following meningomyelocele surgery. To the best of their knowledge, severe hyponatremia caused by CSF leakage after meningomyelocele surgery has not been previously reported in the literature.
Ismail Kürşad Gökce, Hatice Turgut, Ramazan Ozdemir and Selami Cagatay Onal
Süleyman R. Çayli, ÇAğatay Önal, Ayhan Koçak, S. Hale Onmusş and Ayhan Tekiner
✓ Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health concern, especially in developing countries. Many types of neurotuberculosis have been described, but there is only one previously reported case of subdural empyema caused by tuberculous bacilli. A 1-year-old boy who had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis was referred to the authors' institution with a diagnosis of right frontoparietal extraaxial abscess formation. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extraaxial abscess with no evidence of calvarial infection. A craniotomy was performed to drain the pus, which was located subdurally. A polymerase chain reaction test yielded positive results, and histopathological examination revealed caseation. Antituberculous treatment was started after a diagnosis of subdural empyema with related neurotuberculosis had been made. At the end of a 12-month course of medical therapy, the patient was well with no evidence of tuberculosis.
Çagatay Önal, Hiroshi Otsubo, Takashi Araki, Shiro Chitoku, Ayako Ochi, Shelly Weiss, William Logan, Irene Elliott, O. Carter Snead III and James T. Rutka
Object. This study was performed to evaluate the complications of invasive subdural grid monitoring during epilepsy surgery in children.
Methods. The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 35 consecutive children with intractable localization-related epilepsy who underwent invasive video electroencephalography (EEG) with subdural grid electrodes at The Hospital for Sick Children between 1996 and 2001. After subdural grid monitoring and identification of the epileptic regions, cortical excisions and/or multiple subpial transections (MSTs) were performed. Complications after these procedures were then categorized as either surgical or neurological.
There were 17 male and 18 female patients whose mean age was 11.7 years. The duration of epilepsy before surgery ranged from 2 to 17 years (mean 8.3 years). Fifteen children (43%) had previously undergone surgical procedures for epilepsy. The number of electrodes on the grids ranged from 40 to 117 (mean 95). During invasive video EEG, cerebrospinal fluid leaks occurred in seven patients. Also, cerebral edema (five patients), subdural hematoma (five patients), and intracerebral hematoma (three patients) were observed on postprocedural imaging studies but did not require surgical intervention. Hypertrophic scars on the scalp were observed in nine patients. There were three infections, including one case of osteomyelitis and two superficial wound infections. Blood loss and the amounts of subsequent transfusions correlated directly with the size and number of electrodes on the grids (p < 0.001). Twenty-eight children derived significant benefit from cortical resections and MSTs, with a more than 50% reduction of seizures and a mean follow-up period of 30 months.
Conclusions. The results of this study indicate that carefully selected pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy can benefit from subdural invasive monitoring procedures that entail definite but acceptable risks.