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  • Author or Editor: Suresh Magge x
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Suresh N. Magge, H. Isaac Chen, Greg G. Heuer, Lee R. Carrasco, Phillip B. Storm and M.D.

✓Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare event due to anatomical and biome chanical factors. The authors report the case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with this condition after colliding with a classmate. One day after her injury, the patient demonstrated an inability to close her mouth completely, and she had minor tenderness to palpation anterior to the tragus, without neurological deficits. Imaging studies demonstrated a frac tured glenoid fossa with intrusion of the mandible into the cranial cavity. Open reduction of the mandibular condyle was performed, and the glenoid fossa was reconstructed with a split-thickness bone graft and titanium screws. Several dural tears noted at the time of surgery were repaired primarily.

Mandibular condyle dislocation into the middle cranial fossa is often misdiagnosed initially because of its low inci dence and nonspecific symptoms. Computed tomography scanning is the most sensitive diagnostic study for detecting this injury. Closed reduction after induction of general anesthesia has been recommended in recently suffered injuries without neurological deficits, but this approach may overlook damage to intracranial structures. Surgical repair is rec ommended if neurological injury is suspected. Treatment options should be tailored to the individual factors of each case.

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Suresh N. Magge, H. Isaac Chen, Rohan Ramakrishna, Liyi Cen, Zhen Chen, J. Paul Elliott, H. Richard Winn and Peter D. Le Roux

Object

Vasospasm is a leading cause of morbidity and death following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It is important to predict which patients are at risk for vasospasm so that interventions can be made. There are several potential risk factors for vasospasm, one of which is age. However, the effect of age on vasospasm, particularly symptomatic vasospasm, remains controversial.

Methods

Three hundred ninety-one patients were retrospectively identified from a prospective observational database of patients with SAH who had been admitted to a single center. Demographic and clinical data were recorded, and cerebral angiograms obtained at admission and between 5 and 10 days later were compared. The relationship between age and angiographic and symptomatic vasospasms was examined using logistic regression techniques.

Results

Mild (86 patients), moderate (69 patients), severe (56 patients), and no angiographic vasospasms (180 patients) were documented by comparing admission and follow-up angiograms in each patient. Symptomatic vasospasm was identified in 69 patients (17.6%). Angiographic vasospasm was more frequent as age decreased. Except in patients < 30 years old, the frequency of symptomatic vasospasm also increased with decreasing age (p = 0.0001). After adjusting for variables known to be associated with vasospasm, an advanced age was associated with a reduced incidence of any angiographic vasospasm (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94–0.97), severe angiographic vasospasm (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95–0.98), and symptomatic vasospasm (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–0.99).

Conclusions

Results in this study show that a younger age is associated with an increased incidence of angiographic and symptomatic vasospasm.