Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics
Chang Ju Hwang, Choon Sung Lee, Dong-Ho Lee and Jae Hwan Cho
Progression of trunk imbalance is an important finding during follow-up of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Nevertheless, no factors that predict progression of trunk imbalance have been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify parameters that predict progression of trunk imbalance in cases of AIS with a structural thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curve.
This study included 105 patients with AIS and a structural TL/L curve who were followed up at an outpatient clinic. Patients with trunk imbalance (trunk shift ≥ 20 mm) at the initial visit were excluded. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years. Patients were divided into the following groups according to progression of trunk imbalance: 1) Group P, trunk shift ≥ 20 mm at the final visit and degree of progression ≥ 10 mm; and 2) Group NP, trunk shift < 20 mm at the final visit or degree of progression < 10 mm. Radiological parameters included Cobb angle, upper end vertebrae and lower end vertebrae (LEV), LEV tilt, disc wedge angle between LEV and LEV+1, trunk shift, apical vertebral translation, and apical vertebral rotation (AVR). Each parameter was compared between groups. Radiological parameters were assessed at every visit using whole-spine standing anteroposterior radiographs.
Among the 105 patients examined, 13 showed trunk imbalance with progression ≥ 10 mm at the final visit (Group P). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a lower Risser grade (p = 0.002) and a greater initial AVR (p = 0.020) as predictors of progressive trunk imbalance. A change in LEV tilt during follow-up was associated with trunk imbalance (p = 0.001).
Risser grade and AVR measured at the initial visit may predict progression of trunk imbalance. Surgeons should consider the risk of progressive trunk imbalance if patients show skeletal immaturity and a greater AVR at the initial visit.
Jae Hwan Cho, Chang Ju Hwang, Young Hyun Choi, Dong-Ho Lee and Choon Sung Lee
Cervical sagittal alignment (CSA) is related to function and quality of life, but it has not been frequently studied in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This study aimed to reveal the change in CSA following corrective surgery, compare the cervical sagittal parameters according to curve types, and assess related factors for postoperative aggravation of CSA.
The authors studied 318 consecutive patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who underwent corrective surgery at a single center. Occiput–C2 and C2–7 lordosis, C2–7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), T-1 slope, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar sagittal profiles were measured preoperatively and postoperatively. Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire (SRS-22) scores were used as clinical outcomes. Each radiological parameter was compared preoperatively and postoperatively according to curve types (double major, single thoracic, and double thoracic curves). Patients were grouped based on preoperative CSA: the lordotic group (group L) and the kyphotic group (group K). Each radiological parameter was compared between the groups. Related factors for postoperative aggravation of CSA were assessed using multivariate logistic analysis.
Of the total number of patients studied, 67.0% (213 of 318) and 54.4% (173 of 318) showed cervical kyphotic alignment preoperatively and postoperatively, respectively. C2–7 lordosis increased (from −5.8° to −1.1°; p < 0.001) and C2–7 SVA decreased (from 24.2 to 20.0 mm; p < 0.001) postoperatively regardless of curve types. Although group K showed improvement in C2–7 lordosis (from −12.7° to −4.8°; p < 0.001), group L showed no difference (from 9.0° to 6.9°; p = 0.115) postoperatively. Clinical outcomes were not related to the degree of cervical kyphosis in this cohort. C2–7 lordosis (p < 0.001) and pelvic tilt (p = 0.019) were related to postoperative aggravation of CSA.
Regardless of the trend of improvement in CSA, many patients (54.4%) still showed cervical kyphotic alignment postoperatively. C2–7 lordosis and C2–7 SVA improved postoperatively in all curve types. However, postoperative changes in C2–7 lordosis showed different results based on preoperative CSA, which could be related to T-1 slope and thoracic kyphosis. However, clinical outcomes showed no difference based on CSA in this study cohort. Greater C2–7 lordosis and proximal thoracic curve preoperatively were risk factors for postoperative aggravation of CSA (p < 0.001 and p = 0.019, respectively).
Choon Sung Lee, Chang Ju Hwang, Eic Ju Lim, Dong-Ho Lee and Jae Hwan Cho
Postoperative shoulder imbalance (PSI) is a critical consideration after corrective surgery for a double thoracic curve (Lenke Type 2); however, the radiographic factors related to PSI remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the radiographic factors related to PSI after corrective surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in patients with a double thoracic curve.
This study included 80 patients with Lenke Type 2 AIS who underwent corrective surgery. Patients were grouped according to the presence [PSI(+)] or absence [PSI(−)] of shoulder imbalance at the final follow-up examination (differences of 20, 15, and 10 mm were used). Various radiographic parameters, including the Cobb angle of the proximal and middle thoracic curves (PTC and MTC), radiographic shoulder height (RSH), clavicle angle, T-1 tilt, trunk shift, and proximal and distal wedge angles (PWA and DWA), were assessed before and after surgery and compared between groups.
Overall, postoperative RSH decreased with time in the PSI(−) group but not in the PSI(+) group. Statistical analyses revealed that the preoperative Risser grade (p = 0.048), postoperative PWA (p = 0.028), and postoperative PTC/MTC ratio (p = 0.011) correlated with PSI. Presence of the adding-on phenomenon was also correlated with PSI, although this result was not statistically significant (p = 0.089).
Postoperative shoulder imbalance is common after corrective surgery for Lenke Type 2 AIS and correlates with a higher Risser grade, a larger postoperative PWA, and a higher postoperative PTC/MTC ratio. Presence of the distal adding-on phenomenon is associated with an increased PSI trend, although this result was not statistically significant. However, preoperative factors other than the Risser grade that affect the development of PSI were not identified by the study. Additional studies are required to reveal the risk factors for the development of PSI.