Neurogenic kyphoscoliosis in pediatric patients has varied causes and diverse management options. The most common management strategy is to stage the orthopedic and neurosurgical aspects of the correction at an interval of 3–6 months from each other. The aim of this study was to report the authors’ experience with correction of deformity in children with associated neurological abnormalities requiring intervention as a single-stage surgical treatment.
Of 591 pediatric patients with scoliosis treated at the Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre between January 2001 and January 2011, the authors identified all patients with neurogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent deformity correction and a neurosurgical procedure in the same surgical session when they were younger than 15 years. Data regarding the demographic details, preoperative Cobb angle/kyphotic angle, surgical details, postoperative complications, cost of the procedure, and long-term neurological outcome were collected for each case and analyzed. Based on the results of this analysis, the authors propose a 2-category risk stratification system for the timing of deformity correction depending on the primary neurogenic etiology.
Ten cases involving patients with neurogenic kyphoscoliosis requiring both deformity correction and neurosurgical procedure met the criteria and were included in the analysis. All 10 patients were younger than 15 years; their mean age was 10.8 years. The average Cobb angle was 59.5°. Five patients underwent foramen magnum decompression, 5 patients underwent spinal cord detethering, and 1 patient had intraspinal intradural tumor excision. The mean estimated blood loss was 1177 ml (range 700–1550 ml), and the mean operative time was 4.4 hours (range 3–5.5 hours). There were no intraoperative complications. None of the patients had any new postoperative neurological deficits. The mean postoperative Cobb angle of the main thoracic curve was 12.6°.
Simultaneous deformity correction along with a definitive neurosurgical procedure in patients with neurogenic kyphoscoliosis can be performed without added morbidity and avoids both the added costs and the risk of complications associated with a second surgery. The risk stratification system proposed in this paper may serve as a guideline for case selection and help to optimize outcome.