Sergio Cavalheiro, Concezzio Di Rocco, Sergio Valenzuela, Patricia A. Dastoli, Gianpiero Tamburrini, Lucca Massimi, Jardel M. Nicacio, Igor V. Faquini, Daniela F. Ierardi, Nasjla S. Silva, Benedetta Ludovica Pettorini and Silvia R. C. Toledo
The authors assessed the efficacy of intratumoral interferon-α (IFNα)–based chemotherapy in pediatric patients with cystic craniopharyngiomas.
In a prospective multicenter study of 60 pediatric patients, the authors assessed the efficacy of intratumoral INFα2A-based chemotherapy. The study was conducted between 2000 and 2009 at 3 locations: the Medical School of the Federal University of São Paulo, Catholic University of Rome, and the Neurosurgery Institute of Santiago, Chile. The assessment included clinical and radiological control examinations, side effects observed, and total dose used.
Sixty cases of cystic craniopharyngioma were analyzed. The cohort consisted of 35 male and 25 female children (mean age 11 years). Clinical and radiological improvement was achieved in 76% of the cases. New endocrinological deficits were observed in 13% of the cases. In approximately 30% of the patients, the evolution included some light side effects, the most common being headache (33%) and eyelid edema (28%). The number of cycles varied from 1 to 9 (mean 5 cycles), and the total dose applied per cycle was 36,000,000 IU.
This has been the largest documented series of intratumoral chemotherapy using INFα for the control of cystic craniopharyngiomas. The treatment has proved efficacious; there was no mortality, and morbidity rates were low.
Francisco Vaz Guimarães Filho, Giselle Coelho, Sergio Cavalheiro, Marcos Lyra and Samuel T. Zymberg
Ideal surgical training models should be entirely reliable, atoxic, easy to handle, and, if possible, low cost. All available models have their advantages and disadvantages. The choice of one or another will depend on the type of surgery to be performed. The authors created an anatomical model called the S.I.M.O.N.T. (Sinus Model Oto-Rhino Neuro Trainer) Neurosurgical Endotrainer, which can provide reliable neuroendoscopic training. The aim in the present study was to assess both the quality of the model and the development of surgical skills by trainees.
The S.I.M.O.N.T. is built of a synthetic thermoretractable, thermosensible rubber called Neoderma, which, combined with different polymers, produces more than 30 different formulas. Quality assessment of the model was based on qualitative and quantitative data obtained from training sessions with 9 experienced and 13 inexperienced neurosurgeons. The techniques used for evaluation were face validation, retest and interrater reliability, and construct validation.
The experts considered the S.I.M.O.N.T. capable of reproducing surgical situations as if they were real and presenting great similarity with the human brain. Surgical results of serial training showed that the model could be considered precise. Finally, development and improvement in surgical skills by the trainees were observed and considered relevant to further training. It was also observed that the probability of any single error was dramatically decreased after each training session, with a mean reduction of 41.65% (range 38.7%–45.6%).
Neuroendoscopic training has some specific requirements. A unique set of instruments is required, as is a model that can resemble real-life situations. The S.I.M.O.N.T. is a new alternative model specially designed for this purpose. Validation techniques followed by precision assessments attested to the model's feasibility.