Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 14 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Robert L. Tiel x
  • Journal of Neurosurgery x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Robert J. Spinner, John L. D. Atkinson and Robert L. Tiel

Object. Based on a large multicenter experience and a review of the literature, the authors propose a unifying theory to explain an articular origin of peroneal intraneural ganglia. They believe that this unifying theory explains certain intriguing, but poorly understood findings in the literature, including the proximity of the cyst to the joint, the unusual preferential deep peroneal nerve (DPN) deficit, the absence of a pure superficial peroneal nerve (SPN) involvement, the finding of a pedicle in 40% of cases, and the high (10–20%) recurrence rate.

Methods. The authors believe that peroneal intraneural lesions are derived from the superior tibiofibular joint and communicate from it via a one-way valve. Given access to the articular branch, the cyst typically dissects proximally by the path of least resistance within the epineurium and up the DPN and the DPN component of the common peroneal nerve (CPN) before compressing nearby SPN fascicles. The authors present objective evidence based on anatomical, clinical, imaging, operative, and histological data that support this unifying theory.

Conclusions. The predictable clinical presentation, electrical studies, imaging characteristics, operative observations, and histological findings regarding peroneal intraneural ganglia can be understood in terms of their origin from the superior tibiofibular joint, the anatomy of the articular branch, and the internal topography of the peroneal nerve that the cyst invades. Understanding the controversial pathogenesis of these cysts will enable surgeons to perform operations based on the pathoanatomy of the articular branch of the CPN and the superior tibiofibular joint, which will ultimately improve clinical results.

Restricted access

Robert J. Spinner, Robert L. Tiel and David G. Kline

Restricted access

Kimberly S. Harbaugh, Robert L. Tiel and David G. Kline

✓ Despite their benign histological appearance and the current literature composed primarily of case reports with favorable outcomes, ganglion cysts involving peripheral nerves (GCPNs) can cause permanent neurological deficits. The authors present a 27-year Louisiana State University Medical Center (LSUMC) experience with the surgical management of GCPNs. From 1968 to 1995, 27 patients were surgically treated for 27 cysts that involved nerves at nine locations. Cysts of the peroneal nerve were the most common, comprising 52% of the cases. Motor deficit, pain, and sensory changes were present in 83%, 78%, and 48% of cases, respectively. A history of acute trauma was noted in 22%. The mean follow-up duration in these cases was 61 months. Motor recovery was good in only 58% of cases and was related to the severity of the preoperative motor deficit. Pain resolved or was significantly improved in 89% of cases. Five patients underwent nine procedures before referral to LSUMC for treatment of recurrence of their ganglion cysts. None of these patients suffered recurrence after undergoing surgery at LSUMC. However, four additional patients (17%) experienced a total of six recurrences after undergoing their initial procedure. The mean time to recurrence for the patient group as a whole was 16 months. On the basis of their experience, the authors conclude that GCPNs can behave in an aggressive fashion. Patients should be counseled preoperatively about the potential for limited motor recovery and a significant chance for recurrence.

Restricted access

Aruna Ganju, Norbert Roosen, David G. Kline and Robert L. Tiel

Object. The authors conducted a retrospective study of 107 consecutive patients with 111 brachial plexus tumors surgically treated at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC).

Methods. During a 12-year period, from 1986 to 1998, 371 patients with lesions of the brachial plexus underwent surgery at LSUHSC. Among this group, 107 patients harbored 111 tumors of the brachial plexus. Neural sheath tumors were the most commonly found and included 33 neurofibromas (20 of which were associated with von Recklinghausen disease), 36 schwannomas, and 12 malignant neural sheath tumors. Of the non—neural sheath tumors, 13 were benign and 17 were malignant. Presenting symptoms included pain (59%), palpable mass (52%), paresthesias (30%), and paresis (29%).

Anterior supraclavicular (82%) or posterior subscapular (18%) approaches were used to achieve gross-total (79%) or subtotal (21%) resection of tumor. The average follow-up period was 38.3 months or 3.2 years.

Seventy percent of patients with benign neural sheath tumors became free from pain postoperatively or reported improvement in their preoperative pain status. Function remained intact or improved in 50% and remained stable postoperatively in another 20% of cases.

Preservation of function was more likely in patients who presented intact and in those who had not undergone a previous attempted biopsy procedure or resection than in those in whom such manipulation had occurred.

Conclusions. Resection of most plexal tumors is technically feasible and associated with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates.

Restricted access

Daniel H. Kim, Judith A. Murovic, Robert L. Tiel and David G. Kline

Object. The authors present a retrospective analysis of 119 surgically treated femoral nerve lesions at intrapelvic and thigh levels seen at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center.

Methods. Femoral nerve lesions treated between 1967 and 2000, (89 traumatic injuries and 30 tumors and cystic lesions) were evaluated for injury mechanisms, resulting lesions, surgical management, and postoperative functional outcomes by using retrospective chart reviews.

The most common injury mechanism was iatrogenic (52 cases), which occurred after hernia and hip operations (10 each), followed by arterial bypass and gynecological procedures (eight each), angiography (seven), abdominal surgery (five), appendectomy (two), a laparoscopy, and a lumbar sympathectomy. Other injury mechanisms included hip or pelvic fractures (19), gunshot wounds (10), and lacerations (eight). The 30 femoral nerve tumors and cystic lesions consisted of neurofibromas (16), schwannomas (nine), ganglionic cysts (two), neurogenic sarcomas (two), and a leiomyosarcoma.

Forty-four patients underwent neurolysis. Some had recordable nerve action potentials (NAPs) across their lesions in continuity, despite severe distal loss. Others with recordable NAPs had mild loss, but also experienced a pain problem, which was helped in some by neurolysis. In 36 patients, in whom repairs were performed using long sural grafts for mostly proximal pelvic-level injuries, recovery of useful function occurred. Eight of nine thigh-level suture repairs led to improvement to good functional levels. Most of the tumors and cystic lesions were resected, with preservation of preoperative function.

Conclusions. The majority of femoral nerve injuries resulted in lesions in continuity, and intraoperative NAP recordings were essential in evaluating axonal regeneration across these lesions. Despite severe and frequently proximal injury levels requiring repairs with long grafts, femoral nerve lesion repairs resulted in good functional recovery.

Restricted access

Daniel H. Kim, Yong-Jun Cho, Robert L. Tiel and David G. Kline

Object. Outcomes of 1019 brachial plexus lesions in patients who underwent surgery at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center during a 30-year period are reviewed in this paper to provide management guidelines.

Methods. Causes of brachial plexus lesions included 509 stretches/contusions (50%), 161 plexus tumors (16%), 160 thoracic outlet syndromes (TOSs, 16%), 118 gunshot wounds (12%), and 71 lacerations (7%). Many features of clinical presentation, including prior treatment, patient's neurological status, results of electrophysiological studies, intraoperative findings, and postoperative level of function, were studied. The minimum follow-up period was 18 months and the mean follow-up period was 42 months. Repairs were best for injuries located at the C-5, C-6, and C-7 levels, the upper and middle trunk, the lateral cord to the musculocutaneous nerve, and the median and posterior cords to the axillary and radial nerves. Conversely, results were poor for injuries at the C-8 and T-1 levels, and for lower trunk and medial cord lesions, with the exception of injuries of the medial cord to the median nerve. Outcomes were most favorable when patients were carefully evaluated and selected for surgery, although variables such as lesion type, location, and severity, as well as time since injury also affected outcome. This was true also of TOSs and tumors arising from the plexus, especially if they had not been surgically treated previously.

Conclusions. Surgical exploration and repair of brachial plexus lesions is technically feasible and favorable outcomes can be achieved if patients are thoroughly evaluated and appropriately selected.

Restricted access

Daniel H. Kim, Kisoo Han, Robert L. Tiel, Judith A. Murovic and David G. Kline

Object. In this article the authors present a retrospective analysis of 654 surgical outcomes in patients with ulnar nerve entrapments, injuries, and tumors during a 30-year period.

Methods. Data were gathered between 1968 and 1998 at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center. Mechanisms of injuries or lesions included 460 entrapments at the elbow level (70%), 76 lacerations (12%), 52 stretches/contusions (8%), 34 fractures/dislocations (5%), 12 gunshot wounds (2%), two injection-induced injuries (0.3%), and 13 nerve sheath tumors (2%).

In cases of entrapment, direct operative recordings uniformly demonstrated a slowing of conduction at the elbow, even in cases in which preoperative noninvasive studies had been nondiagnostic. Intraoperative electrical “inching” studies also demonstrated significant conduction abnormalities that lie just proximal to and through the olecranon notch rather than distal, beneath the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. There were only eight exceptions to this. Lesions not in continuity due to the injury required primary or secondary end-to-end sutures or graft repair. Aided by intraoperative nerve action potential recording, lesions in continuity received either external or internal neurolysis and split repair or resection followed by end-to-end suture or graft repair. Functional recoveries of Grade 3 or better were seen in 81 (92%) of 88 patients who underwent neurolysis, 42 (72%) of 58 patients who received suture repair, and 24 (67%) of 36 patients who received graft repair. Nevertheless, fewer Grade 4 or 5 recoveries were reached than those seen in patients with radial or median nerve injuries. Nerve sheath tumors were resected with preservation of preoperative function in five of seven patients.

Conclusions. Although difficult to obtain, useful functional recovery can be achieved with proper surgical management of ulnar nerve entrapments and injuries.

Restricted access

Daniel H. Kim, Judith A. Murovic, Robert L. Tiel, Gregory Moes and David G. Kline

Object. This is a retrospective review of 397 benign and malignant peripheral neural sheath tumors (PNSTs) that were surgically treated between 1969 and 1999 at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC). The surgical techniques and adjunctive treatments are presented, the tumors are classified with respect to type and prevalence at each neuroanatomical location, and the management of malignant PNSTs is reviewed.

Methods. There were 361 benign PNSTs (91%). One hundred forty-one benign lesions were brachial plexus tumors: 54 schwannomas (38%) and 87 neurofibromas (62%), of which 55 (63%) were solitary neurofibromas and 32 (37%) were neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1)—associated neurofibromas. Among the brachial plexus lesions supraclavicular tumors predominated with 37 (69%) of 54 schwannomas; 34 (62%) of 55 solitary neurofibromas; and 19 (59%) of 32 NF1-associated neurofibromas. One hundred ten upper-extremity benign PNSTs consisted of 32 schwannomas (29%) and 78 neurofibromas (71%), of which 45 (58%) were sporadic neurofibromas and 33 (42%) were NF1-associated neurofibromas. Twenty-five benign PNSTs were removed from the pelvic plexus. Lower-extremity PNSTs included 32 schwannomas (38%) and 53 neurofibromas (62%), of which 31 were solitary neurofibromas and 22 were NF1-associated neurofibromas.

There were 36 malignant PNSTs: 28 neurogenic sarcomas and eight other sarcomas (fibro-, spindle cell, synovial, and perineurial sarcomas).

Conclusions. The majority of tumors were benign PNSTs from the brachial plexus region. Most of the benign PNSTs in all locations were neurofibromas, with sporadic neurofibromas predominating. Similar numbers of schwannomas were found in the upper and lower extremities, whereas neurofibromas were more prevalent in the upper extremities. Despite aggressive limb-ablation or limb-sparing surgery plus adjunctive therapy, malignant PNSTs continue to be associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.

Restricted access

Daniel H. Kim, Judith A. Murovic, Robert L. Tiel, Gregory Moes and David G. Kline

Object. This is a retrospective review of 146 surgically treated benign and malignant peripheral non—neural sheath tumors (PNNSTs). Tumor classifications with patient numbers, locations of benign PNNSTs, and surgical techniques and adjunctive treatments are presented. The results of a literature review regarding tumor frequencies are presented.

Methods. One hundred forty-six patients with 111 benign and 35 malignant PNNSTs were treated between 1969 and 1999 at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC). The benign tumors included 33 ganglion cysts, 16 cases of localized hypertrophic neuropathy, 12 lipomas, 12 tumors of vascular origin, and 11 desmoid tumors. There were four each of lipofibrohamartomas, myositis ossificans, osteochondromas, and ganglioneuromas; two each of meningiomas, cystic hygromas, myoblastoma or granular cell tumors, triton tumors, and lymphangiomas; and one epidermoid cyst. The locations of benign PNNSTs were the following: 33 in the brachial plexus region, 39 in an upper extremity, one in the pelvic plexus, and 38 in a lower extremity.

The malignant PNNSTs included 35 surgically treated carcinomas, 15 of which originated in the breast and nine in the lung. There were two melanomas metastatic to nerve and one tumor each that had metastasized from the bladder, rectum, skin, head and neck, and thyroid, and from a primary Ewing sarcoma. There was a single lymphoma that had metastasized to the radial nerve and one chordoma and one osteosarcoma, each of which had metastasized to the brachial plexus.

Conclusions. There were more benign PNNSTs than malignant ones. Benign tumors were relatively equally distributed in the brachial plexus region and upper and lower extremities, with the exception of the pelvic plexus, which had only one tumor.

Restricted access

Daniel H. Kim, Andrew C. Kam, Padmavathi Chandika, Robert L. Tiel and David G. Kline

Object. The goal of this paper was to review surgical management and outcomes in patients treated for radial nerve (RN) lesions at Louisiana State University Health Sciences over a period of 30 years.

Methods. Two hundred sixty patients with RN injuries were evaluated. The most common mechanisms of injuries involving the RN included fracture of the humerus, laceration, blunt contusions, and gunshot wounds. One hundred and eighty patients (69%) underwent surgery. Lesions not in continuity required primary or secondary end-to-end suture repairs or graft repairs. With the use of direct intraoperative nerve action potential recording, RN injuries in which the lesion was in continuity required external or internal neurolysis or resection of the lesion followed by end-to-end suture or graft repair. A minimum of 1.5 years follow-up review was available in 90% of the patients who underwent surgery. Motor function recovery to Grade 3 or better was observed in 10 (91%) of 11 patients who underwent primary suture repair, 25 (83%) of 30 who underwent secondary suture repair, 43 (80%) of 54 who received graft repair, and 63 (98%) of 64 in whom neurolysis was performed. Sixteen (71%) of 21 patients with superficial sensory RN injury achieved satisfactory pain relief after complete resection of a neuroma or neurolysis.

Conclusions. This study clearly demonstrates that excellent functional recovery can be achieved with proper surgical management of RN injuries.