The cases of 2 children with true aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) and initial false-negative angiograms are reported. In both cases, the initial angiogram was of adequate technical quality and included the projections on which aneurysms were later documented. There was no significant vasospasm at the time of initial angiography; therefore, transient aneurysm sac thrombosis was the most likely explanation for the initial false-negative studies. It is particularly interesting to note that 1 of the 2 patients had a pattern of hemorrhage compatible with the most limited definition of a perimesencephalic SAH, that is, a small prepontine cistern hemorrhage. If a second angiogram had been deemed unnecessary based on that criterion alone, a ruptured basilar tip aneurysm would have escaped detection and treatment.
Edison P. Valle, Rafael J. Tamargo and Philippe Gailloud
Wuyang Yang, Risheng Xu, Jose L. Porras, Clifford M. Takemoto, Syed Khalid, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Justin M. Caplan, Geoffrey P. Colby, Alexander L. Coon, Rafael J. Tamargo, Judy Huang and Edward S. Ahn
Sickle cell disease (SCD) in combination with moyamoya syndrome (MMS) represents a rare complication of SCD, with potentially devastating neurological outcomes. The effectiveness of surgical revascularization in this patient population is currently unclear. The authors’ aim was to determine the effectiveness of surgical intervention in their series of SCD-MMS patients by comparing stroke recurrence in those undergoing revascularization and those undergoing conservative transfusion therapy.
The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients with MMS who were seen at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institution between 1990 and 2013. Pediatric patients (age < 18 years) with confirmed diagnoses of SCD and MMS were included. Intracranial stroke occurrence during the follow-up period was compared between surgically and conservatively managed patients.
A total of 15 pediatric SCD-MMS patients (28 affected hemispheres) were included in this study, and all were African American. Seven patients (12 hemispheres) were treated with indirect surgical revascularization. The average age at MMS diagnosis was 9.0 ± 4.0 years, and 9 patients (60.0%) were female. Fourteen patients (93.3%) had strokes before diagnosis of MMS, with an average age at first stroke of 6.6 ± 3.9 years. During an average follow-up period of 11.6 years, 4 patients in the conservative treatment group experienced strokes in 5 hemispheres, whereas no patient undergoing the revascularization procedure had any strokes at follow-up (p = 0.029). Three patients experienced immediate postoperative transient ischemic attacks, but all recovered without subsequent strokes.
Indirect revascularization is suggested as a safe and effective alternative to the best medical therapy alone in patients with SCD-MMS. High-risk patients managed on a regimen of chronic transfusion should be considered for indirect revascularization to maximize the effect of stroke prevention.
Geoffrey P. Colby, Bowen Jiang, Matthew T. Bender, Narlin B. Beaty, Erick M. Westbroek, Risheng Xu, Li-Mei Lin, Jessica K. Campos, Rafael J. Tamargo, Judy Huang, Alan R. Cohen and Alexander L. Coon
Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare entities. The authors recently treated a 9-month-old infant with a 19-mm recurrent, previously ruptured, and coil-embolized left middle cerebral artery (MCA) pseudoaneurysm, which was treated definitively with single-stage Pipeline-assisted coil embolization. The patient was 5 months old when she underwent resection of a left temporal Grade 1 desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma at an outside institution, which was complicated by left MCA injury with a resultant 9-mm left M1 pseudoaneurysm. Within a month, the patient had two aneurysmal rupture events and underwent emergency craniectomy for decompression and evacuation of subdural hematoma. The pseudoaneurysm initially underwent coil embolization; however, follow-up MR angiography (MRA) revealed aneurysm recanalization with saccular enlargement to 19 mm. The patient underwent successful flow diversion–assisted coil embolization at 9 months of age. At 7 months after the procedure, follow-up MRA showed complete aneurysm occlusion without evidence of in-stent thrombosis or stenosis. Experience with flow diverters in the pediatric population is still in its early phases, with the youngest reported patient being 22 months old. In this paper the authors report the first case of such a technique in an infant, whom they believe to be the youngest patient to undergo cerebral flow diversion treatment.
Wuyang Yang, Heather Anderson-Keightly, Erick M. Westbroek, Justin M. Caplan, Xiaoming Rong, Alice L. Hung, Geoffrey P. Colby, Alexander L. Coon, Rafael J. Tamargo, Judy Huang and Edward S. Ahn
Compared with the general population, the specific natural history of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in pediatric patients is less well understood. Furthermore, few pediatric studies have compared posttreatment hemorrhagic risk and functional outcome across different treatment modalities. The objective of this study was to elucidate these points.
The authors retrospectively reviewed all pediatric patients with AVMs evaluated at their institution between 1990 and 2013. The AVM natural history was represented by hemorrhagic risk during the observation period. For treated patients, the observation period was defined as the interval between diagnosis and treatment. Posttreatment hemorrhagic risk and functional outcomes were also assessed.
A total of 124 pediatric patients with AVMs were evaluated, and 90 patients (72.6%) were retained through follow-up. The average patient age was 13.3 ± 3.8 years, with a mean follow-up period of 9.95 years. The overall AVM obliteration rate was 59.7%. Radiosurgery had an obliteration rate of 49.0%. Thirteen patients were managed conservatively. Four patients under observation hemorrhaged during a total interval of 429.4 patient-years, translating to an annual risk of 0.9%. Posttreatment hemorrhagic risk by treatment modalities were categorized as follows: surgery ± embolization (0.0%), radiosurgery ± embolization (0.8%), embolization alone (2.8%), surgery + radiosurgery ± embolization (3.5%), and observation (0.8%). A significantly higher risk of posttreatment hemorrhage was observed for patients with hemorrhagic presentation (p = 0.043) in multivariate analysis. Seizure presentation, frontal lobe location, nonheadache presentation, and treatment modality were significantly associated with increased risk of poor functional outcomes.
In this study of pediatric patients with AVMs, the natural history of hemorrhage was relatively low at 0.9%. Resection remained the optimal management for hemorrhage control and functional outcome perseverance in these pediatric patients with AVMs. AVM obliteration is a valid treatment goal, especially for patients with ruptured presentation, to prevent further hemorrhages later in life.