✓ A retrospective analysis of 224 patients with a ruptured supratentorial aneurysm, admitted to the care of one of six neurosurgeons on the day of or the day following their subarachnoid hemorrhage, was carried out. Both postoperative and management mortality rates were calculated by the grade of the patient on admission. There were no statistically significant differences in postoperative and management mortality rates when patients were categorized by time of operation, except for the increased management mortality for Grade 3 and 4 patients who were operated on late.
Bryce Weir and Keith Aronyk
Report of five cases
Alexander Zouros, Ravi Bhargava, Michael Hoskinson and Keith E. Aronyk
✓ Bilateral convexity and interhemispheric subdural hematomas are common neuroimaging patterns seen in infants who have sustained nonaccidental head injuries (NAHIs). These collections often appear aschronic or acute-on-chronic on computerized tomography (CT) studies. To determine the nature of these extraaxial fluid collections and their relationship to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, the authors studied five infants with suspected NAHI in whom symptomatic bilateral mixed- or low-density subdural collections were revealed on imaging studies; the patients underwent burr hole evacuation of the hematoma and external drainage. Once decompression was achieved, radiotracer was injected into the lumbar subarachnoid space, and the subdural drainage system was monitored for appearance of the isotope. In all five cases, the radiotracer moved rapidly from the lumbar subarachnoid space into the convexity subdural space and then into the external drainage system. This indicated the possibility that some of these mixed-density subdural collections were acute blood mixed with CSF rather than acute-on-chronic collections arising from rebleeding subdural membranes. The authors propose that, during infancy, tears in the loosely adherent arachnoid envelope at the main arachnoid granulation site along the superior sagittal sinus may result in a considerable amount of CSF mixing with acute blood in the subdural space, creating a hematohygroma.
Kelly D. Johnston, Anil H. Walji, Richard J. Fox, Jeffrey A. Pugh and Keith E. Aronyk
The purpose of this human cadaver study was to determine whether or not an intraosseous skull infusion would access the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) via intradural venous channels. The diploic space of the skull bone contains a sinusoidal vascular network that communicates with the underlying dura mater. Diploic veins in the parasagittal area connect with endothelium-lined intradural channels in the subjacent dura and ultimately with the dural venous sinuses. A significant proportion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption is thought to occur via arachnoid granulations in the region of the SSS and especially along the parasagittal dura where arachnoid granulations are surrounded by intradural venous channels (lateral lacunae). The CSF is likely to be conducted from the subarachnoid space into the venous system via the fine intradural channels making up the lateral lacunae.
Infusion of vinyl acetate casting material into the diploic space of the human cadaveric skull resulted in complete filling of the lateral lacunae and SSS. Corrosion casting techniques and examination under magnification were used to characterize the anatomical connections between diploic spaces and dural venous sinuses.
Corrosion casting, performed on five formalin-fixed cadavers, clearly showed the anatomical connections between the diploic infusion site and the venous sinuses in the underlying parasagittal dura where some of the CSF is thought to be absorbed.
The diploic vascular channels of the human skull may represent an indirect pathway into the dural venous sinuses. Intraosseous skull infusion may represent another possible strategy for diversion of CSF into the vascular system in the treatment of hydrocephalus.
Jeffrey A. Pugh, Jonathan Tyler, Thomas A. Churchill, Richard J. Fox and Keith E. Aronyk
Hydrocephalus results from abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes or flow patterns. The absorption of CSF is determined largely by pressures within veins and venous sinuses in the head and adjacent to the spine. Most surgical solutions for hydrocephalus involve diversion of excess CSF into alternative absorption sites, and most of these solutions are still suboptimal. The focus of this work has been to recreate more normal CSF absorption into the dural venous sinuses without having to directly access the superior sagittal sinus (SSS).
Intraosseous skull infusion for the purpose of accessing the SSS and the systemic venous system was tested by experimental skull infusions of tracer fluids into living large animals (14 adult pigs).
Compared with control injections into an ear vein, infusions into the skull through specially designed infusion devices had similar systemic absorption characteristics. This suggested that intraosseous skull infusion in a living large animal was successful in gaining access to the SSS and systemic venous system.
This study constitutes the first demonstration of the success of intraosseous skull infusion in gaining rapid access to the systemic venous system and it thus opens the possibility of using this strategy for diversion of CSF back into the intracranial venous system for the treatment of hydrocephalus.