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Ikuho Yonezawa, Tsuyoshi Saito, Daishi Nakahara, JongHwa Won, Takuro Wada and Kazuo Kaneko

Primary synovial sarcoma originating from the cauda equina is extremely rare. Only one case, involving an 11-year-old girl, has been reported. The authors describe the case of a 23-year-old woman with a primary synovial sarcoma of the cauda equina.

The patient visited a local hospital and described a 2-month history of low-back pain. She was referred to the authors' hospital for further evaluation. On physical examination, she had a straight–leg raising result of 70° bilaterally. Motor examination revealed Grade 4/5 strength in the bilateral extensor hallux longus muscles. There was normal sensation to light touch and vibration in the lower extremities. Sagittal Gd-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging demonstrated an intradural, extramedullary, and uniformly enhancing mass that extended from L-3 to L-4. The mass was totally resected and adjuvant local radiation therapy was administered. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of a paraffin-embedded tissue sample revealed SYT-SSX fusion transcripts, and the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was confirmed. Five and a half years after surgery, the patient is free of local recurrence and metastatic disease. The RT-PCR detection of SYT-SSX fusion transcripts played a key role in establishing the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma of the cauda equina. Complete resection of the mass with adjuvant local radiation therapy proved to be effective.

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Hidetoshi Nojiri, Kei Miyagawa, Hiroto Yamaguchi, Masato Koike, Yoshiyuki Iwase, Takatoshi Okuda and Kazuo Kaneko


Lumbar surgery via a lateral approach is a minimally invasive and highly useful procedure. However, care must be taken to avoid its potentially fatal complications of intestinal and vascular injuries. The object of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of intraoperative ultrasound in improving the safety of lateral lumbar spine surgery.


A transvaginal ultrasound probe was inserted into the operative field, and the intestinal tract, kidney, psoas muscle, and vertebral body were identified using B-mode ultrasound. The aorta, vena cava, common iliac vessels, and lumbar arteries and their associated branches were identified using the color Doppler mode.


The study cohort comprised 100 patients who underwent lateral lumbar spine surgery, 92 via a left-sided approach. The intestinal tract and kidney lateral to the psoas muscle on the anatomical approach pathway were visualized in 36 and 26 patients, respectively. A detachment maneuver displaced the intestinal tract and kidneys in an anteroinferior direction, enabling confirmation of the absence of organ tissues above the psoas. In all patients, the major vessels anterior to the vertebral bodies and the lumbar arteries and associated branches in the psoas on the approach path were clearly visualized in the Doppler mode, and their orientation, location, and positional relationship with regard to the vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, and psoas were determined.


When approaching the lateral side of the lumbar spine in the retroperitoneal space, intraoperative ultrasound allows real-time identification of the blood vessels surrounding the lumbar spine, intestinal tract, and kidney in the approach path and improves the safety of surgery without increasing invasiveness.