Juri Kivelev, Mika Niemelä and Juha Hernesniemi
Spinal cavernomas are rare, but can cause significant neurological deficits due to mass effect and extralesional hemorrhage. The authors present their results of microsurgical treatment of 14 consecutive patients with spinal cavernoma, and review the literature.
Of the 376 patients with cavernomas of the CNS treated at Helsinki University Central Hospital (a catchment area close to 2 million inhabitants) between January 1980 and June 2009, 14 (4%) had a spinal cavernoma. The authors reexamined and analyzed the patient files and images retrospectively. Median patient age at presentation was 45 years (range 20–57 years). The female/male ratio was equal. Median duration of symptoms before admission to the department was 12 months (range 0.1–168 months). Patients suffered from sensorimotor paresis, radicular pain, or neurogenic micturition disorders in different combinations or separately. Hemorrhage had occurred in 7 patients (50%) before surgery. In 9 patients (64%) the cavernoma was intramedullary, in 4 (29%) extradural, and in 1 intradural extramedullary. On MR imaging, 6 patients (43%) had a cavernoma in the cervical region, 7 (50%) in the thoracic region, and 1 (7%) in the lumbar region.
Postoperatively, patients were followed up for a median of 3 years (range 1–10 years). At follow-up, 13 patients (93%) experienced significant improvement in motor ability after surgery, and all patients were able to walk with or without aid. Ten of the 11 patients with pain syndrome (91%) showed significant pain relief without recurrence. Micturition disorder was noted in 6 patients (43%) at follow-up, but in 5 the condition had existed before surgery. No patient improved in bladder function after surgery, and 1 patient developed micturition dysfunction postoperatively.
Microsurgical removal of spinal cavernomas alleviates sensorimotor deficits and pain caused by mass effect and hemorrhage. However, bladder dysfunction remains unchanged after surgery.
Markku Kaste, Juha Hernesniemi, Hannu Somer, Matti Hillbom and Aarne Konttinen
✓ Brain-type creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme (CK-BB) was detected in the serum in 13 out of 26 patients with acute brain injury (50%). The peak of CK-BB activity ranged from 5 to 188 U/liter, constituting, on average, 10.5% of the total CK activity. The highest activities were seen in patients with gunshot wounds. High CK-BB activity was associated with poor prognosis, but minimal CK-BB elevations did not have prognostic significance.
Heart-type creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) was detected in the serum in 17 out of 26 patients (65%). The peak activity ranged from 5 to 115 U/liter, constituting, on average, 6.6% of total CK activity. Electrocardiograms taken from 20 patients revealed transient T-wave inversions in the precordial leads in four patients; three of them also showed serum CK-MB activity. Subendocardial hemorrhage was detected at autopsy in three of the five CK-MB-positive patients, but in none of the four CK-MB-negative cases. Present findings suggest that acute brain injury may secondarily cause myocardial damage.
Juri Kivelev, Mika Niemelä, Riku Kivisaari and Juha Hernesniemi
Intraventricular cavernomas (IVCs) occur in only 2–10% of patients with cerebral cavernomas. Reports concerning IVC are scarce and are limited mostly to sporadic case reports. In this paper, the authors present a series of 12 patients with IVCs that were treated at a single neurosurgical department. In addition, the authors reviewed the literature.
All clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Follow-up questionnaires were sent to all patients. Outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The authors also conducted a PubMed search and found 77 cases of IVC.
The patients' median age was 47 years, and the male/female ratio was 2:1. A cavernoma occurred in the lateral ventricle in 6 patients, in another 5 it was in the fourth ventricle, and 1 had a lesion in the third ventricle. Almost all patients presented with acute headache on admission and in more than half, the symptoms were related to cavernoma bleeding. In total, 8 rebleedings occurred in 5 patients during a median of 0.4 years. Three patients with a cavernoma of the fourth ventricle presented with a cranial nerve deficit. In 8 cases, a cavernoma was surgically treated an average of 1.3 years after the diagnosis. Only 1 patient underwent surgery in the acute phase after a major intraventricular/intracerebral hemorrhage. The median follow-up time was 2 years. No patient was lost to follow-up, and no patient died. In total, on follow-up 9 patients improved and 3 had a persistent neurological deficit, of which 2 existed before surgery.
In the present series, the IVCs had a high tendency for rehemorrhage. Surgery is advocated when hemorrhages are frequent, and the mass effect causes progressive neurological deficits. Microsurgical removal of the IVC is safe, but in the fourth ventricle it can carry increased risk for cranial nerve deficits.
Juri Kivelev, Elina Koskela, Kirsi Setälä, Mika Niemelä and Juha Hernesniemi
Cavernomas in the occipital lobe are relatively rare. Because of the proximity to the visual cortex and incoming subcortical tracts, microsurgical removal of occipital cavernomas may be associated with a risk of visual field defects. The goal of the study was to analyze long-term outcome after operative treatment of occipital cavernomas with special emphasis on visual outcome.
Of the 390 consecutive patients with cavernomas who were treated at Helsinki University Central Hospital between 1980 and 2011, 19 (5%) had occipital cavernomas. Sixteen patients (4%) were surgically treated and are included in this study. The median age was 39 years (range 3–59 years). Seven patients (56%) suffered from hemorrhage preoperatively, 5 (31%) presented with visual field deficits, 11 (69%) suffered from seizures, and 4 (25%) had multiple cavernomas. Surgery was indicated for progressive neurological deterioration. The median follow-up after surgery was 5.25 years (range 0.5–14 years).
All patients underwent thorough neuroophthalmological assessment to determine visual outcome after surgery. Visual fields were classified as normal, mild homonymous visual field loss (not disturbing the patient, driving allowed), moderate homonymous visual field loss (disturbing the patient, driving prohibited), and severe visual field loss (total homonymous hemianopia or total homonymous quadrantanopia). At the last follow-up, 4 patients (25%) had normal visual fields, 6 (38%) had a mild visual field deficit, 1 (6%) complained of moderate visual field impairment, and 5 (31%) had severe homonymous visual field loss. Cavernomas seated deeper than 2 cm from the pial surface carried a 4.4-fold risk of postoperative visual field deficit relative to superficial ones (p = 0.034). Six (55%) of the 11 patients presenting with seizures were seizure-free postoperatively. Eleven (69%) of 16 patients had no disability during the long-term follow-up.
Surgical removal of occipital cavernomas may carry a significant risk of postoperative visual field deficit, and the risk is even higher for deeper lesions. Seizure outcome after removal of these cavernomas appeared to be worse than that after removal in other supratentorial locations. This should be taken into account during preoperative planning.
Roberto C. Heros
Matti Vapalahti, Bengt Ljunggren, Hans Säveland, Juha Hernesniemi, Lennart Brandt and Antti Tapaninaho
✓ The Kuopio University Clinic is the neurosurgical referral center for a population of 930,000 inhabitants in central Finland while the Lund University Clinic is the neurosurgical referral center for a population of 1.46 million inhabitants in southern Sweden. The incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is approximately 19/100,000/year in central Finland and approximately five/100,000/year in southern Sweden. During the calendar year 1982, 69 patients with a ruptured supratentorial aneurysm were admitted in Lund, and 71 such patients were admitted in Kuopio. Thirty-nine patients in neurological Grades I to III (according to Hunt and Hess) underwent early aneurysm operation in Lund, and 46 such patients were operated on within a week after SAH in Kuopio. In the combined series of 85 Grade I to III patients with aneurysm operation within a week after rupture, 78% made a good recovery; the morbidity rate was 14%, and the mortality rate was 8%.
Anna Piippo, Mika Niemelä, Jouke van Popta, Marko Kangasniemi, Jaakko Rinne, Juha E. Jääskeläinen and Juha Hernesniemi
Management of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) has changed during the last decades due to increased knowledge of their pathophysiology and natural history as well as advances in treatment modalities. The authors describe the characteristics and long-term outcome of a large consecutive series of patients with DAVFs.
Altogether 251 patients with 261 DAVFs were treated in 2 of the 5 neurosurgery departments at Helsinki and Kuopio University Hospitals between 1944 and 2006. Clinical data and radiological examinations were reviewed to assess patients' overall long-term clinical outcome.
The detection rate of DAVFs increased markedly in the 1970s and again in the 1990s when digital subtraction angiography was introduced. The incidence of DAVFs in a defined southern Finnish population was 0.51 per 100,000 individuals per year, which represents 32% of all the brain arteriovenous malformations. In the early part of the series, DAVFs were treated by proximal ligation of the feeding arteries. Later, most of the patients underwent preoperative embolization and subsequent craniotomy, and since 2000 stereotactic radiosurgery has been increasingly used in the treatment of DAVFs. Fifty-nine percent of the 261 fistulas were totally occluded. Treatment-related major complications were seen in 21 patients.
The advances in diagnostic methods (digital subtraction angiography, CT, and MRI) increased the detection rate of DAVFs, and as treatment modalities developed, the results of treatment and outcome of patients markedly improved with the introduction of endovascular techniques and stereotactic radiosurgery. Microsurgery is of limited use in DAVFs resistant to other treatment modalities.