Neuroendoscopy has demonstrated safety and efficacy in the treatment of a host of pediatric neurosurgical pathologies. With the increase in its applicability, several associated complications have been described in the literature. A common practice in pediatric neurosurgery is the use of Gelfoam sponge pledget in the burr hole, followed by bone fragments and dust (obtained from the created burr hole), to cover the dural defect. This technique is used to enhance burr hole sealing and potentially prevent CSF leakage from the surgical site. Reports on intracranial bone dust migration associated with this technique are scarce. The authors report 2 cases of intracranial migration of bone fragments after an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and an endoscopic colloid cyst resection. The bone fragment migration was thought to be caused by negative pressure from a lumbar puncture in one case and external trauma to the head in the other. As endoscopy becomes more widely used, it is important to be aware of this potential complication that may in some cases require an intervention. A review of the cases reported in the literature is provided and a technique is suggested to help prevent this complication.
Tarek Y. El Ahmadieh, Cody B. Wolfe, Joyce Koueik, Bradley E. Weprin, Bermans J. Iskandar and Angela V. Price
Mark R. Kraemer, Joyce Koueik, Susan Rebsamen, David A. Hsu, M. Shahriar Salamat, Susan Luo, Sara Saleh, Taryn M. Bragg and Bermans J. Iskandar
Ventricular shunts have an unacceptably high failure rate, which approaches 50% of patients at 2 years. Most shunt failures are related to ventricular catheter obstruction. The literature suggests that obstructions are caused by in-growth of choroid plexus and/or reactive cellular aggregation. The authors report endoscopic evidence of overdrainage-related ventricular tissue protrusions (“ependymal bands”) that cause partial or complete obstruction of the ventricular catheter.
A retrospective review was completed on patients undergoing shunt revision surgery between 2008 and 2015, identifying all cases in which the senior author reported endoscopic evidence of ependymal tissue in-growth into ventricular catheters. Detailed clinical, radiological, and surgical findings are described.
Fifty patients underwent 83 endoscopic shunt revision procedures that revealed in-growth of ventricular wall tissue into the catheter tip orifices (ependymal bands), producing partial, complete, or intermittent shunt obstructions. Endoscopic ventricular explorations revealed ependymal bands at various stages of development, which appear to form secondarily to siphoning. Ependymal bands are associated with small ventricles when the shunt is functional, but may dilate at the time of obstruction.
Ventricular wall protrusions are a significant cause of proximal shunt obstruction, and they appear to be caused by siphoning of surrounding tissue into the ventricular catheter orifices.