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  • Author or Editor: Jia Wang x
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Zhiyong Bi, Xiaohui Ren, Junting Zhang and Wang Jia

OBJECT

Intracranial subependymomas are rarely reported due to their extremely low incidence. Knowledge about subependymomas is therefore poor. This study aimed to analyze the incidence and clinical, radiological, and pathological features of intracranial subependymomas.

METHODS

Approximately 60,000 intracranial tumors were surgically treated at Beijing Tiantan Hospital between 2003 and 2013. The authors identified all cases in which patients underwent resection of an intracranial tumor that was found to be pathological examination demonstrated to be subependymoma and analyzed the data from these cases.

RESULTS

Forty-three cases of pathologically confirmed, surgically treated intracranial subependymoma were identified. Thus in this patient population, subependymomas accounted for approximately 0.07% of intracranial tumors (43 of an estimated 60,000). Radiologically, 79.1% (34/43) of intracranial subependymomas were misdiagnosed as other diseases. Pathologically, 34 were confirmed as pure subependymomas, 8 were mixed with ependymoma, and 1 was mixed with astrocytoma. Thirty-five patients were followed up for 3.0 to 120 months after surgery. Three of these patients experienced tumor recurrence, and one died of tumor recurrence. Univariate analysis revealed that shorter progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly associated with poorly defined borders. The association between shorter PFS and age < 14 years was almost significant (p = 0.51), and this variable was also included in the multivariate analysis. However, multivariate analysis showed showed only poorly defined borders to be an independent prognostic factor for shorter PFS (RR 18.655, 95% CI 1.141–304.884, p = 0.040). In patients 14 years of age or older, the lesions tended to be pure subependymomas located in the unilateral supratentorial area, total removal tended to be easier, and PFS tended to be longer. In comparison, in younger patients subependymomas tended to be mixed tumors involving the bilateral infratentorial area, with a lower total removal rate and shorter PFS.

CONCLUSIONS

Intracranial subependymoma is a rare benign intracranial tumor with definite radiological features. Long-term survival can be expected, although poorly defined borders are an independent predictor of shorter PFS. All the features that differ between tumors in younger and older patients suggest that they might have different origins, biological behaviors, and prognoses.

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Feng Wang, Tao Sun, Xing-Gang Li and Na-Jia Liu

Object

The aim of this study was to use diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) to define the 3D relationships of the uncinate fasciculus, anterior commissure, inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, inferior thalamic peduncle, and optic radiation and to determine the positioning landmarks of these white matter tracts.

Methods

The anatomy was studied in 10 adult human brain specimens. Brain DTT was performed in 10 healthy volunteers. Diffusion tensor tractography images of the white matter tracts in the temporal stem were obtained using the simple single region of interest (ROI) and multi-ROIs based on the anatomical knowledge.

Results

The posteroinferior insular point is the anterior extremity of intersection of the Heschl gyrus and the inferior limiting sulcus. On the inferior limiting sulcus, this point is the posterior limit of the optic radiation, and the temporal stem begins at the limen insulae and ends at the posteroinferior insular point. The distance from the limen insulae to the tip of the temporal horn is just one third the length of the temporal stem. The uncinate fasciculus comprises the core of the anterior temporal stem, behind which the anterior commissure and the inferior thalamic peduncle are located, and they occupy the anterior third of the temporal stem. The inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus passes through the entire temporal stem. The most anterior extent of the Meyer loop is located between the anterior tip of the temporal horn and the limen insulae. Most of the optic radiation crosses the postmedian two thirds of the temporal stem.

Conclusions

On the inferior limiting sulcus, the posteroinferior insular point is a reliable landmark of the posterior limit of the optic radiations. The limen insulae, anterior tip of the temporal horn, and posteroinferior insular point may be used to localize the white matter fibers of the temporal stem in analyzing magnetic resonance imaging or during surgery.

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Nan Zhang, Li Pan, Jia Zhong Dai, Bin Jiang Wang, En Min Wang and Pei Wu Cai

Object. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on tumor growth and symptom relief in patients with jugular foramen schwannomas after undergoing gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS).

Methods. Between November 1993 and December 2000, 27 patients were treated for jugular foramen schwannomas. The results of GKS in these cases are reviewed. Twelve patients had undergone previous tumor resection and the others underwent GKS as their primary treatment. The mean tumor volume was 13.5 cm3 (range 4.7–35.7 cm3). The mean margin dose was 14.6 Gy (range 9.8–20 Gy). The mean maximum dose was 32.6 Gy (range 25.4–50 Gy). The prescription isodose was 35 to 55%. Twenty-five patients were followed for a mean period of 38.7 months (range 9–90 months). Tumors shrank in 11 patients, remained stable in 13, and enlarged in one patient who underwent a second GKS procedure. Sixteen patients improved and nine remained at their pre-GKS clinical status. No patient developed new cranial nerve deficits after GKS.

Conclusions. The follow-up results indicate that GKS is a safe and effective primary or adjuvant treatment method for the control of jugular foramen schwannomas.

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Xiaofeng Deng, Yan Zhang, Long Xu, Bo Wang, Shuo Wang, Jun Wu, Dong Zhang, Rong Wang, Jia Wang and Jizong Zhao

OBJECT

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital malformations that may grow in the language cortex but usually do not lead to aphasia. In contrast, language dysfunction is a common presentation for patients with a glioma that involves language areas. The authors attempted to demonstrate the difference in patterns of language cortex reorganization between cerebral AVMs and gliomas by blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) evaluation.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical and imaging data of 63 patients with an unruptured cerebral AVM (AVM group) and 38 patients with a glioma (glioma group) who underwent fMRI. All the patients were right handed, and all their lesions were located in the left cerebral hemisphere. Patients were further categorized into 1 of the 2 following subgroups according to their lesion location: the BA subgroup (overlying or adjacent to the inferior frontal or the middle frontal gyri [the Broca area]) and the WA subgroup (overlying or adjacent to the supramarginal, angular, or superior temporal gyri [the Wernicke area]). Lateralization indices of BOLD signal activations were calculated separately for the Broca and Wernicke areas. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the difference in patterns of language cortex reorganization between the 2 groups.

RESULTS

In the AVM group, right-sided lateralization of BOLD signal activations was observed in 23 patients (36.5%), including 6 with right-sided lateralization in the Broca area alone, 12 in the Wernicke area alone, and 5 in both areas. More specifically, in the 34 patients in the AVM-BA subgroup, right-sided lateralization of the Broca area was detected in 9 patients (26.5%), and right-sided lateralization of the Wernicke area was detected in 4 (11.8%); in the 29 patients in the AVM-WA subgroup, 2 (6.9%) had right-sided lateralization of the Broca area, and 13 (44.8%) had right-sided lateralization of the Wernicke area. In the glioma group, 6 patients (15.8%) showed right-sided lateralization of the Wernicke area, including 2 patients in the glioma-BA subgroup and 4 patients in the glioma-WA subgroup. No patient showed right-sided lateralization of the Broca area. Moreover, although the incidence of right-sided lateralization was higher in cases of low-grade gliomas (5 in 26 [19.2%]) than in high-grade gliomas (1 in 12 [8.3%]), no significant difference was detected between them (p = 0.643). Compared with the AVM group, the incidence of aphasia was significantly higher (p < 0.001), and right-sided lateralization of language areas was significantly rarer (p = 0.026) in the glioma group.

CONCLUSIONS

Right-sided lateralization of BOLD signal activations was observed in patients with a cerebral AVM and in those with a glioma, suggesting that language cortex reorganization may occur with both diseases. However, the potential of reorganization in patients with gliomas seems to be insufficient compared with patients AVMs, which is suggested by clinical manifestations and the fMRI findings. Moreover, this study seems to indicate that in patients with an AVM, a nidus near the Broca area mainly leads to right-sided lateralization of the Broca area, and a nidus near the Wernicke area mainly leads to right-sided lateralization of the Wernicke area.

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Jian-Cong Weng, Lai-Rong Song, Da Li, Liang Wang, Zhen Wu, Jun-Mei Wang, Gui-Lin Li, Wang Jia, Li-Wei Zhang and Jun-Ting Zhang

OBJECTIVE

Primary intracranial myxomas (PICMs) are extremely rare neoplasms, and their management and prognostic factors remain ambiguous. The authors aimed to elaborate the radiological features, evaluate the risk factors for progression-free survival (PFS), and propose a treatment protocol based on pooled data from cases treated at their institute and those found in the literature.

METHODS

Clinical data from all cases of PICMs treated at the authors’ institute and those cases reported in the English-language literature between 1987 and December 2017 were reviewed. The authors searched the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases using the keywords “myxoma” and “central nervous system,” “intracranial,” “cerebral,” “skull base,” “skull,” or “brain.” Previously published data were processed and used according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Risk factors in the pooled cohort were evaluated.

RESULTS

Cases from the authors’ institute included 21 males and 9 females, with a mean age of 35.7 ± 1.7 years. Gross-total resection (GTR) and non-GTR were achieved in 6 (20.0%) and 24 (80.0%) patients, respectively. After a mean follow-up of 86.7 ± 14.1 months, recurrence occurred in 6 (24%) patients, for a median PFS time of 85.2 months (range 36.0–136.0 months) and no deaths. In the literature between 1987 and 2017, 35 cases of PICM were identified in 14 males and 21 females with a mean age of 31.7 ± 3.2 years. GTR and non-GTR were achieved in 23 (65.7%) and 9 (25.7%) cases, respectively. After a mean follow-up of 25.8 ± 6.9 months (range 1.0–156.0 months), recurrence occurred in 4 (14.3%) patients, for a median PFS time of 11.0 months (range 3.0–36.0 months) and no deaths. Actuarial PFS rates at 1, 5, and 10 years were 93.0%, 80.6%, and 67.9%, respectively. A multivariate model demonstrated that GTR (HR 0.058, 95% CI 0.005–0.680, p = 0.023) was the only factor that favored PFS.

CONCLUSIONS

PICMs are rare neoplasms with a slightly higher occurrence in males. GTR was the only favorable factor for PFS. Based on statistical results, GTR alone, if tolerable, is advocated as the optimal treatment for PICM. Nevertheless, conservative excision may be preferred to avoid damage to vital structures. PICMs have a tendency to recur within a few years of the initial surgery if resection is incomplete; therefore, close postoperative follow-up is mandatory. Future studies with larger cohorts are necessary to verify the study findings.

Systematic review registration no.: CRD42018091517 (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/)

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En-Min Wang, Li Pan, Bing-Jiang Wang, Nan Zhang, Liang-Fu Zhou, Ya-Fei Dong, Jia-Zhong Dai, Pei-Wu Cai and Hong Chen

Object. The authors assessed the long-term result of gamma knife surgery (GKS) for hemangioblastomas of the brain (HABs) and show histopathological findings after GKS.

Methods. Thirty-five patients, 28 men and seven women, with a mean age of 36 years underwent GKS. Eighteen patients presented with multiple tumors and 17 with a solitary tumor. Twenty-one patients had von Hippel—Lindau (VHL) disease. The mean tumor diameter was 13 mm (range 5–55 mm). The mean follow up after GKS was 66 months (range 24–114 months). The mean prescription dose was 17.2 Gy (range 12–24 Gy) at the tumor margin. For tumors close to or within the brainstem a prescription dose of 12 to 13 Gy was used.

At the most recent follow up, 29 patients were alive, six were dead, and satisfactory tumor control had been achieved in 29. A stable or improved neurological status was obtained in 21 patients. Eight patients underwent open surgery because of tumor-associated cyst enlargement or the development of new tumors after GKS. Seven patients developed new tumors and five of them required a second GKS. The 1-year tumor control rate was 94%; 2 years, 85%; 3 years, 82%; 4 years, 79%; and 5 years, 71%. Histopathology showed that no tumor cells were found and there was degeneration and necrosis in a tumor nodule 48 months after GKS with a prescription dose of 18 Gy.

Conclusions. Gamma knife surgery was a useful choice for small- or medium-sized, solid HAB in the long term, especially when the tumor margin dose was 18 Gy. Although GKS can treat multiple tumors in a single session, for HABs associated with VHL disease, GKS faces the dual problems of tumor recurrence or development of a new tumor.

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Lingling Fang, Jia Huang, Qian Zhang, Raymond C. K. Chan, Rong Wang and Weiqing Wan

OBJECTIVE

Dysexecutive syndrome is common in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD), a chronic cerebrovascular disease that is characterized by stenosis of the bilateral internal carotid arteries and progressive collateral revascularization, and MMD can be classified as ischemic or hemorrhagic according to the disease presentation and history. In this study, the authors aimed to determine which aspects of executive function are impaired in patients with MMD, in addition to the specific dysexecutive functions present among its clinical subtypes and the mechanisms underlying dysexecutive function in these patients.

METHODS

The authors administered 5 typical executive function tests (the Stroop test, the Hayling Sentence Completion Test [HSCT], the verbal fluency [VF] test, the N-back test, and the Sustained Attention to Response Task [SART]) to 49 patients with MMD and 47 IQ-, age-, education-, and social status–matched healthy controls. The dysexecutive questionnaire (DEX) was also used to assess participants' subjective feelings about their executive function. A total of 39 of the patients were evaluated by CT perfusion (CTP) before the assessments were performed, and the correlations among the performances of the patients on the above tests with the parameters of cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), and time-to-peak (TTP) in the frontal lobes of these patients were also analyzed.

RESULTS

Many aspects of executive function in the patients with MMD were significantly poorer than those in the healthy controls, and the patients performed particularly poorer on the VF test, HSCT, N-back test, and SART. The patients with hemorrhagic MMD exhibited worse executive inhibition, executive processing, and semantic inhibition compared with those with ischemic MMD, but the latter group presented a worse working memory and poorer sustained attention. There were no significant differences in the DEX scores between the patients with MMD and healthy controls. The other findings were as follows: CBF was significantly positively correlated with the number correct on part B of the HSCT (r = 0.481, p = 0.01) and accuracy on the 0-back task of the N-back (r = 0.346, p = 0.031); MTT was significantly positively correlated with accuracy on the 2-back task of the N-back (r = 0.349, p = 0.034) and factor 5 of the DEX (r = 0.359, p = 0.032); and TTP was significantly positively correlated with the number correct on part B of the HSCT (r = 0.402, p = 0.034) and the 1-back reaction time of the N-back (r = 0.356, p = 0.026).

CONCLUSIONS

The patients with MMD exhibited impairments in semantic inhibition, executive processing, working memory, and sustained attention, but they were not aware of these deficits. Moreover, differences in dysexecutive function existed between the different subtypes of MMD. Hypoperfusion of the frontal lobe may be related to working memory and semantic inhibition impairments in patients with MMD.

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Hock-Kean Liew, Chih-Wei Hsu, Mei-Jen Wang, Jon-Son Kuo, Ting-Yi Li, Hsiao-Fen Peng, Jia-Yi Wang and Cheng-Yoong Pang

Object

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for about 15% of all deaths due to stroke. It frequently causes brain edema, leading to an expansion of brain volume that exerts a negative impact on ICH outcomes. The ICH-induced brain edema involves inflammatory mechanisms. The authors' in vitro study shows that urocortin (UCN) exhibits antiinflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Therefore, the neuroprotective effect of UCN on ICH in rats was investigated.

Methods

Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced by an infusion of bacteria collagenase type VII-S or autologous blood into the unilateral striatum of anesthetized rats. At 1 hour after the induction of ICH, UCN (0.05, 0.5, and 5 μg) was infused into the lateral ventricle on the ipsilateral side. The authors examined the injury area, brain water content, blood-brain barrier permeability, and neurological function.

Results

The UCN, administered in the ipsilateral lateral ventricle, was able to penetrate into the injured striatum. Posttreatment with UCN reduced the injury area, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier permeability and improved neurological deficits of rats with ICH.

Conclusions

Posttreatment with UCN through improving neurological deficits of rats with ICH dose dependently provided a potential therapeutic agent for patients with ICH or other brain injuries.

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Li Pan, En-Min Wang, Nan Zhang, Liang-Fu Zhou, Bing-Jiang Wang, Ya-Fei Dong, Jia-Zhong Dai and Pei-Wu Cai

Object. The authors evaluated the long-term efficacy of gamma knife surgery (GKS) in patients with trigeminal schwannomas.

Methods. Fifty-six patients, 31 women and 25 men (mean age 42 years), underwent GKS for trigeminal schwannomas. Fourteen had previously undergone surgery, and GKS was the primary treatment in the remaining 42 patients. The mean target volume was 8.7 cm3 (range 0.8–33 cm3); the mean maximum dose was 27 Gy (range 20–40 Gy); the mean tumor margin dose was 13.3 Gy (range 10–15 Gy); and the mean follow-up period was 68 months (range 27–114 months).

Disappearance of the tumor occurred in seven patients. An obvious decrease in tumor volume was observed in 41 patients, four tumors remained unchanged, and four tumors progressed at 5, 26, 30, and 60 months, respectively. One patient with disease progression died of tumor progression at 36 months after GKS. The tumor growth control rate in this group was 93% (52 of 56 cases).

Mild numbness or diplopia was relieved completely in 14 patients. Improvement of other neurological deficits was demonstrated in 25 patients. Trigeminal nerve dysfunction was either unchanged or slightly worse in 13 patients after GKS. Four patients experienced mild symptom deterioration related to tumor progression.

Conclusions. Radiosurgery proved to be an effective treatment for small- and medium-sized trigeminal schwannomas. Some larger tumors are also suitable for radiosurgery if there is no significant brainstem compression.

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Xiaofeng Deng, Faliang Gao, Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Rong Wang, Shuo Wang, Yong Cao, Yuanli Zhao, Yuesong Pan, Xun Ye, Xingju Liu, Qian Zhang, Jia Wang, Ziwen Yang, Meng Zhao and Jizong Zhao

OBJECTIVE

Bypass surgery is the most common treatment for moyamoya disease (MMD), but there is controversy over which surgical modality is best. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with MMD after undergoing different surgical modalities.

METHODS

A series of 696 consecutive MMD patients treated between June 2009 and May 2015 were screened in this prospective cohort study. Patients who did not undergo revascularization surgeries and those who underwent different surgical modalities in bilateral hemispheres were excluded. Finally, 529 patients who were observed for at least 12 months were included: 438 patients underwent unilateral surgery, and 91 patients underwent bilateral surgery. Of these, 241 patients underwent direct bypass (DB); 81, a combined bypass (CB); and 207, an indirect bypass (IB). Three clinical outcomes were evaluated and compared between surgical groups: recurrent stroke events, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores, and change in the main symptoms.

RESULTS

The mean follow-up period was 40 months. During the follow-up period, recurrent stroke was observed in 43 patients, including 15 patients with hemorrhage, 26 patients with ischemia (transient ischemic attack in 19 patients and infarction in 7 patients), and 2 patients with both hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients who underwent a CB or DB had a longer ischemia-free time than those who underwent IB (p = 0.013); however, there was no significant difference in the hemorrhage-free time between the different surgical modalities (p = 0.534). A good neurological status (mRS score ≤ 2) was achieved in 495 patients (93.6%) and was significantly achieved by more children (98.2%) than adults (92.3%; p = 0.022). Surgical modalities were not significantly associated with outcome neurological status (p = 0.860). Moreover, improvement in symptoms was observed in 449 patients (84.9%) and was also significantly more common in children (93.0%) than in adults (82.7%; p = 0.006). No significant difference was observed between the different surgical modalities (p = 0.548).

CONCLUSIONS

CB and DB are more effective at preventing recurrent ischemic strokes than IB. However, there is no evidence that these 3 surgical modalities demonstrate significant differences in preventing recurrent hemorrhage.