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  • Author or Editor: Gary L. Gallia x
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Anthony O. Asemota and Gary L. Gallia

OBJECTIVE

Frailty, a state of decreased physiological reserve, has been shown to significantly impact outcomes of surgery. The authors sought to examine the impact of frailty on the short-term outcomes of patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

METHODS

Weighted data from the 2000–2014 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample were studied. Patients diagnosed with pituitary tumors or disorders who had undergone transsphenoidal pituitary surgery were identified. Frailty was determined using the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) frailty-defining diagnoses indicator. Standard descriptive techniques and matched propensity score analyses were used to explore the odds ratios of postoperative complications, discharge dispositions, and costs.

RESULTS

A total of 115,317 cases were included in the analysis. Frailty was present in 1.48% of cases. The mean age of frail versus non-frail patients was 57.14 ± 16.96 years (mean ± standard deviation) versus 51.91 ± 15.88 years, respectively (p < 0.001). A greater proportion of frail compared to non-frail patients had an age ≥ 65 years (37.08% vs 24.08%, respectively, p < 0.001). Frail patients were more likely to be black or Hispanic (p < 0.001), possess Medicare or Medicaid insurance (p < 0.001), belong to lower-median-income groups (p < 0.001), and have greater comorbidity (p < 0.001). Results of propensity score–matched multivariate analysis revealed that frail patients were more likely to develop fluid and electrolyte disorders (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.07–2.43, p = 0.02), intracranial vascular complications (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.01–7.49, p = 0.04), mental status changes (OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.65–7.82, p < 0.001), and medical complications including pulmonary insufficiency (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.13–4.05, p = 0.02) and acute kidney failure (OR 4.70, 95% CI 1.88–11.74, p = 0.01). The mortality rate was higher among frail patients (1.46% vs 0.37%, p < 0.001). Frail patients also demonstrated a greater likelihood for nonroutine discharges (p < 0.001), higher mean total charges ($109,614.33 [95% CI $92,756.09–$126,472.50] vs $56,370.35 [95% CI $55,595.72–$57,144.98], p < 0.001), and longer hospitalizations (9.27 days [95% CI 7.79–10.75] vs 4.46 days [95% CI 4.39–4.53], p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Frailty in patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is associated with worse postoperative outcomes and higher costs, indicating that state’s potential role in routine preoperative risk stratification.

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Gary L. Gallia, Carolyn Moore, Lori Jordan, Philippe Gailloud and George I. Jallo

✓Neonatal intracranial aneurysms are rare. The authors report the case of a 4-week-old girl who presented with left-eye ptosis and proptosis. Computerized tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass involving the left cavernous sinus and middle cranial fossa. Cerebral angiography revealed a large complex left cavernous carotid artery (CA) aneurysm. The patient underwent endovascular treatment in which detachable coils and n-butyl cyanoacrylate glue were used to achieve complete obliteration of the aneurysm. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported neonatal intracranial aneurysm originating from the cavernous CA and treated endovascularly. The authors review the literature on neonatal intracranial aneurysms.

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Deric M. Park

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Daniel M. Sciubba, Gary L. Gallia, Pablo Recinos, Ira M. Garonzik and Richard E. Clatterbuck

✓ Ionizing radiation therapy is associated with pathological vascular changes in intracranial vessels, most commonly in the form of vessel thrombosis and occlusion. The development of an intracranial aneurysm following such therapy, however, is far less common. In this report the authors describe a 24-year-old man in whom a distal middle cerebral artery aneurysm developed 15 years after radiotherapy, which was given as adjuvant treatment following resection of a medulloblastoma. The patient underwent a craniotomy for microsurgical trapping of the aneurysm and was discharged without any neurological deficit. This case serves to remind clinicians of the possibility, albeit rare, that intracranial aneurysms may form following cranial radiotherapy.

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Gary L. Gallia, Daniel M. Sciubba, Christine L. Hann, Siva P. Raman, William H. Westra, Anthony P. Tufaro and Alessandro Olivi

✓ Synovial sarcoma is a soft-tissue lesion occurring predominantly in the extremities of young adults. Although the head and neck region is the second most common site of involvement, synovial sarcoma has rarely been reported in the paranasal sinus. The authors present a case of synovial sarcoma arising from the frontal sinus and review the literature of synovial sarcomas arising from the paranasal sinuses.

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Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Patricia Zadnik, Jon D. Weingart, Alessandro Olivi, Gary L. Gallia, Jaishri Blakeley, Michael Lim, Henry Brem and Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa

Object

Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor in adults. These tumors recur regardless of intervention. This propensity to recur despite aggressive therapies has made many perceive that repeated resections have little utility. The goal of this study was to evaluate if patients who underwent repeat resections experienced improved survival as compared with patients with fewer numbers of resections, and whether the number of resections was an independent predictor of prolonged survival.

Methods

The records of adult patients who underwent surgery for an intracranial primary glioblastoma at an academic tertiary-care institution between 1997 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Multivariate proportionalhazards regression analysis was used to identify an association between glioblastoma resection number and survival after controlling for factors known to be associated with survival, such as age, functional status, periventricular location, extent of resection, and adjuvant therapy. Survival as a function of time was plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival rates were compared using log-rank analysis.

Results

Five hundred seventy-eight patients with primary glioblastoma met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. At last follow-up, 354, 168, 41, and 15 patients underwent 1, 2, 3, or 4 resections, respectively. The median survival for patients who underwent 1, 2, 3, and 4 resections was 6.8, 15.5, 22.4, and 26.6 months (p < 0.05), respectively. In multivariate analysis, patients who underwent only 1 resection experienced shortened survival (relative risk [RR] 3.400, 95% CI 2.423–4.774; p < 0.0001) as compared with patients who underwent 2 (RR 0.688, 95% CI 0.525–0.898; p = 0.0006), 3 (RR 0.614, 95% CI 0.388–0.929; p = 0.02), or 4 (RR 0.600, 95% CI 0.238–0.853; p = 0.01) resections. These results were verified in a case-control evaluation, controlling for age, neurological function, periventricular tumor location, extent of resection, and adjuvant therapy. Patients who underwent 1, 2, or 3 resections had a median survival of 4.5, 16.2, and 24.4 months, respectively (p < 0.05). Additionally, the risk of infections or iatrogenic deficits did not increase with repeated resections in this patient population (p > 0.05).

Conclusions

Patients with glioblastoma will inevitably experience tumor recurrence. The present study shows that patients with recurrent glioblastoma can have improved survival with repeated resections. The findings of this study, however, may be limited by an intrinsic bias associated with patient selection. The authors attempted to minimize these biases by using strict inclusion criteria, multivariate analyses, and case-control evaluation.

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I-Mei Siu, Vafi Salmasi, Brent A. Orr, Qi Zhao, Zev A. Binder, Christine Tran, Masaru Ishii, Gregory J. Riggins, Christine L. Hann and Gary L. Gallia

Object

Chordomas are rare tumors arising from remnants of the notochord. Because of the challenges in achieving a complete resection, the radioresistant nature of these tumors, and the lack of effective chemotherapeutics, the median survival for patients with chordomas is approximately 6 years. Reproducible preclinical model systems that closely mimic the original patient's tumor are essential for the development and evaluation of effective therapeutics. Currently, there are only a few established chordoma cell lines and no primary xenograft model. In this study, the authors aimed to develop a primary chordoma xenograft model.

Methods

The authors implanted independent tumor samples from 2 patients into athymic nude mice. The resulting xenograft line was characterized by histopathological analysis and immunohistochemical staining. The patient's tumor and serial passages of the xenograft were genomically analyzed using a 660,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism array.

Results

A serially transplantable xenograft was established from one of the 2 patient samples. Histopathological analysis and immunohistochemical staining for S100 protein, epithelial membrane antigen, and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 of the primary patient sample and the xenografts confirmed that the xenografts were identical to the original chordoma obtained from the patient. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis confirmed the presence of brachyury, a recently described marker of chordomas, in the tumor from the patient and each of the xenografts. Genome-wide variation was assessed between the patient's tumor and the xenografts and was found to be more than 99.9% concordant.

Conclusions

To the best of their knowledge, the authors have established the first primary chordoma xenograft that will provide a useful preclinical model for this disease and a platform for therapeutic development.