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  • Author or Editor: E. Sander Connolly x
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E. Sander Connolly Jr.

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E. Sander Connolly Jr.

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E. Sander Connolly Jr.

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E. Sander Connolly Jr.

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Eric J. Heyer, Joanna L. Mergeche and E. Sander Connolly Jr.

Object

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is frequently used to evaluate peripheral cerebral resistance and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the middle cerebral artery prior to and during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis may have reduced peripheral cerebral resistance to compensate for inadequate CBF. The authors aim to determine whether symptomatic patients with reduced peripheral cerebral resistance prior to CEA demonstrate increased CBF and cognitive improvement as early as 1 day after CEA.

Methods

Fifty-three patients with symptomatic CEA were included in this observational study. All patients underwent neuropsychometric evaluation 24 hours or less preoperatively and 1 day postoperatively. The MCA was evaluated using TCD for CBF mean velocity (MV) and pulsatility index (PI). Pulsatility index ≤ 0.80 was used as a cutoff for reduced peripheral cerebral resistance.

Results

Significantly more patients with baseline PI ≤ 0.80 exhibited cognitive improvement 1 day after CEA than those with PI > 0.80 (35.0% vs 6.1%, p = 0.007). Patients with cognitive improvement had a significantly greater increase in CBF MV than patients without cognitive improvement (13.4 ± 17.1 cm/sec vs 4.3 ± 9.9 cm/sec, p = 0.03). In multivariate regression model, a baseline PI ≤ 0.80 was significantly associated with increased odds of cognitive improvement (OR 7.32 [1.40–59.49], p = 0.02).

Conclusions

Symptomatic CEA patients with reduced peripheral cerebral resistance, measured as PI ≤ 0.80, are likely to have increased CBF and improved cognitive performance as early as 1 day after CEA for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Revascularization in this cohort may afford benefits beyond prevention of future stroke. Clinical trial registration no: NCT00597883 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

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E. Sander Connolly Jr.

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Mohamed Samy Elhammady and Roberto C. Heros

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Eric J. Heyer, Kaitlin A. Mallon, Joanna L. Mergeche, Yaakov Stern and E. Sander Connolly

OBJECT

Neurocognitive performance is used to assess multiple cognitive domains, including motor coordination, before and after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Although gross motor strength is impaired with ischemia of large cortical areas or of the internal capsule, the authors hypothesize that patients undergoing CEA demonstrate significant motor deficits of hand coordination contralateral to the operative side, which is more clearly manifest in the nondominant hand than in the dominant hand with ischemia of smaller cortical areas.

METHODS

The neurocognitive performance of 374 patients was evaluated with a battery of neuropsychometric tests. Both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients undergoing CEA were included. The authors evaluated the patients' dominant and nondominant hand performance on the Grooved Pegboard test, a test of hand coordination, to demonstrate their functional laterality. Neurocognitive dysfunction was evaluated as the difference in performance before and after CEA according to group-rate and event-rate analyses. The z scores were generated for all tests using a reference group of patients who were having simple spine surgery. Dominant and nondominant motor coordination functions were evaluated as raw scores and as calculated z scores.

RESULTS

According to event-rate analysis, significantly more patients undergoing CEA of the opposite carotid artery demonstrated nondominant than dominant hand deficits of coordination (41.2% vs 26.4%, respectively, p = 0.02). Similarly, according to group-rate analysis, in patients undergoing CEA of the opposite carotid artery, raw difference scores from the Grooved Pegboard test reflected greater nondominant than dominant hand deficits of coordination (21.0 ± 54.4 vs 9.7 ± 37.0, respectively, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients undergoing CEA of the opposite carotid artery are more likely to demonstrate nondominant than dominant hand deficits of coordination because of greater dexterity in the dominant hand before surgery.

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E. Sander Connolly Jr.

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Bartosz T. Grobelny, Andrew F. Ducruet, Brad E. Zacharia, Zachary L. Hickman, Kristen N. Andersen, Eric Sussman, Austin Carpenter and E. Sander Connolly Jr.

Object

Despite the prevalence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDHs) in the rapidly growing elderly population, several aspects of disease management remain unclear. In particular, there is still conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of antiepileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis in patients with CSDH who undergo bur hole drainage. The authors endeavored to evaluate the efficacy of AED prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of seizures and improving outcome in this patient population.

Methods

A single surgeon's clinical database (E.S.C.) was analyzed for cases involving bur hole drainage for CSDH. Cases involving nonhemorrhagic subdural effusions as well as acute subdural hemorrhages evacuated by craniotomy were excluded from this study. Patient medical records were evaluated for relevant demographic data, medical history, imaging characteristics, clinical details of the treatment, hospital stay, and discharge summaries.

Results

The authors included 88 patients with bur hole–treated CSDH. Eleven patients (12.5%) suffered at least 1 seizure between hemorrhage onset and discharge from their treatment hospital admission. Seizures were more frequent in women than men (p = 0.030) and least frequent in patients with right-sided lesions (p = 0.030). In a multiple logistic regression model, preoperative initiation of AED prophylaxis was the only significant predictor of the lower incidence of postoperative seizures (OR 0.10, p = 0.013). However, preoperative initiation of AED prophylaxis did not significantly affect outcome at discharge.

Conclusions

The finding in this study demonstrates that preoperative AED prophylaxis likely reduces the incidence of postoperative seizures in patients with CSDH treated with bur hole drainage. A future prospective randomized study is necessary to evaluate the effect of seizure reduction on clinical outcome.