✓ The surgical treatment of thoracolumbar metastases is controversial, and various approaches have been described. No single approach, however, is always applicable, and the optimal surgical strategy for any individual is determined by several interrelated factors. The authors have grouped these factors into four preoperative planning considerations that form the mnemonic “MAPS”: 1) method of resection; 2) anatomy of spinal disease; 3) patient's level of fitness; and 4) stabilization. The choice of approach is also considered in light of the goals of surgery, including the relief of pain, neurological palliation, spinal stabilization, and oncological control.
Use of “MAPS” for determining the optimal surgical approach to metastatic disease of the thoracolumbar spine: anterior, posterior, or combined
Invited submission from the Joint Section Meeting on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, March 2004
Daryl R. Fourney and Ziya L. Gokaslan
Spine surgery referrals redirected through a multidisciplinary care pathway: effects of nonsurgeon triage including MRI utilization
Presented at the 2013 Joint Spine Section Meeting
Danica R. Kindrachuk and Daryl R. Fourney
The Saskatchewan Spine Pathway (SSP) was introduced to improve quality and access to care for patients with low-back and leg pain in the province. There is very limited data regarding the efficacy of nonsurgeon triage of surgical referrals. The objective of this early implementation study was to determine how the SSP affects utilization of MRI and spine surgery.
The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 87 consecutive patients with low-back and leg pain who were initially referred to a spine surgeon but were instead redirected to the SSP clinic between May 1, 2011, and November 30, 2011. The SSP clinic triaged patients into 2 groups: Group A (nonsurgical management) and Group B (referred back to the spine surgeon). The SSP classification was modified from the classification proposed by Hall et al. Pain and disability were scored by pain-related visual analog scale, modified Oswestry Disability Index, and EuroQol-5D.
Sixty-two patients (Group A, 71.3%) were discharged after patient education, self-care advice, and/or referral for additional mechanical therapies. Although only 25 patients (Group B, 28.7%) were directed back to the surgeon, the final percentage (12.6%) offered surgery was similar to that of historic controls (15%). Total MRI utilization was significantly lower in Group A (25.8%) than Group B (92.0%) (p < 0.0001). Nonsurgeon triage captured all red flags detected by the surgeon. Patients in Group B were much more likely to have a leg-dominant pain (p = 0.0088) and had significantly higher Oswestry Disability Index (p = 0.0121) and EuroQol-5D mobility (p = 0.0484) scores.
The SSP significantly reduced MRI utilization and referrals seen by the surgeon for nonoperative care. Although this early implementation study suggests potential for cost savings, a more rigorous analysis of outcomes, costs, and patient satisfaction is required.
Adam S. Wu and Daryl R. Fourney
Routine histopathological examination of discectomy specimens remains common practice in many hospitals, although it rarely detects unsuspected clinically significant disease. Controversy exists as to the effectiveness of this practice. The objectives of this study were to compare the authors’ experience with a review of the literature.
In a retrospective database analysis the authors identified all intervertebral disc specimens obtained during spinal procedures over an 8-year period (1996–2004). Cases of benign (nonneoplastic and noninfectious) indications for surgery were included in the study, whereas cases of nonbenign indications were excluded. The final pathological diagnoses were reviewed, and a chart review was performed to determine whether any unexpected findings affected subsequent patient care. A total of 1858 discectomy specimens were identified: 1775 of these were obtained in 1719 routine discectomy procedures. Unexpected histopathological findings were identified in four cases, and none was clinically significant.
Routine histopathological examination of disc specimens is not justified. The decision to send specimens for pathological examination should be determined on a case-by-case basis after consideration of the clinical presentation, results of laboratory and imaging studies, and intraoperative findings.
Daryl R. Fourney, Gregory N. Fuller and Ziya L. Gokaslan
✓ Extradural ependymomas of the sacrococcygeal region are very rare, with most arising from the soft tissues of the presacral area or from the regions dorsal to the sacrum. In even rarer circumstances, the tumor may arise within the sacral canal, likely as a result of ependymal cells of the extradural filum terminale. Because of bone erosion caused by extension of the tumor into the pelvis or dorsal to the sacrum, a truly intraspinal extradural ependymoma in this region has until now never been clearly demonstrated. The authors present a patient with a myxopapillary ependymoma arising from the filum terminale externa in which there was no involvement of the intradural filum or extension outside the sacral canal. A review of the literature is presented, with emphasis on the pathogenesis and clinical management of these rare tumors.
Daryl R. Fourney, Dima Abi-Said, Frederick F. Lang, Ian E. McCutcheon and Ziya L. Gokaslan
Object. Few reports are available on the use of pedicle screw fixation for cancer-related spinal instability. The authors present their experience with pedicle screw fixation in the management of malignant spinal column tumors.
Methods. Records for patients with malignant spinal tumors who underwent pedicle screw fixation at the authors' institution between September 1994 and December 1999 were retrospectively reviewed.
Results. Ninety-five patients with malignant spinal tumors underwent 100 surgeries involving pedicle screw fixation: metastatic spinal disease was present in 81 patients, and locally invasive tumors were demonstrated in 14 patients. Indications for surgery were pain (98%) and/or neurological dysfunction (80%). A posterior (48%) or a combined anterior—posterior (52%) approach was performed depending on the extent of tumor and the patient's condition. At the mean follow up of 8.2 months, 43 patients (45%) had died; median survival, as determined by Kaplan—Meier analysis, was 14.8 months. At 1 month postsurgery, self-reported pain had improved in 87% of cases (p < 0.001), which is a finding substantiated by reductions in analgesic use, and 29 (47%) of 62 patients with preoperative neurological impairments were functionally improved (p < 0.001). Postoperative complications were associated only with preoperative radiation therapy (p = 0.002) and with preexisting serious medical conditions (p = 0.04). In two patients asymptomatic violation of the lateral wall of the pedicle was revealed on postoperative radiography. The 30-day mortality rate was 1%.
Conclusions. For selected patients with malignant spinal tumors, pedicle screw fixation after tumor resection may provide considerable pain relief and restore or preserve ambulation with acceptable rates of morbidity and mortality.
Lissa Peeling, Evan Frangou, Stephen Hentschel, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Daryl R. Fourney
The treatment of complex thoracolumbar disorders occasionally requires combined anterior and posterior approaches. Traditionally, these are either sequentially staged to occur during the same anesthesia procedure or alternatively performed on separate days. A less common option is the simultaneous anterior-posterior approach. The authors discuss the rationale for this approach in selected cases and illustrate a number of modifications to previous descriptions of the procedure. By slightly altering the incision, the risk of wound breakdown and infection has been reduced. The use of newly available positioning devices has allowed easy incorporation of fluoroscopy to guide the placement of spinal instrumentation. The authors have also expanded the use of the approach beyond the original oncological indications to include trauma and infection.
Case report and description of operative technique
Zvi R. Cohen, Daryl R. Fourney, Rex A. Marco, Laurence D. Rhines and Ziya L. Gokaslan
✓ The authors describe a technique for total spondylectomy for lesions involving the cervical spine. The method involves separately staged anterior and posterior approaches and befits the unique anatomy of the cervical spine. The procedure is described in detail, with the aid of radiographs, intraoperative photographs, and illustrations. Unlike in the thoracic and lumbar spine—for which methods of total en bloc spondylectomy have previously been described—a strictly en bloc resection is not possible in the cervical spine because of the need to preserve the vertebral arteries and the nerve roots supplying the upper limbs. Although the resection described in this case is by definition intralesional, it is oncologically sound, given the development of effective neoadjuvent chemotherapeutic regimens for osteosarcoma.
Stephen J. Hentschel, Allen W. Burton, Daryl R. Fourney, Laurence D. Rhines and Ehud Mendel
Object. The purpose of this study was to examine a group of patients with cancer who underwent a vertebroplasty or a kyphoplasty for a vertebral body (VB) fracture, even though the procedure may have been considered contraindicated based on previous reports in the literature.
Methods. The electronic database maintained by the Departments of Neurosurgery and Anesthesiology—Pain Management at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center was searched for patients who underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty between January 2001 and July 2003. The criteria defining a contraindicated procedure were based on a review of the literature. Group I consisted of patients who did not undergo a contraindicated vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty, whereas Group II consisted of patients who underwent one of these procedures even though it may have been considered contraindicated.
There were 53 patients with fractures at 132 levels who met the criteria for the study. Of these, 17 patients with fractures at 18 levels (14% of total) were considered to have undergone a contraindicated vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty (Group II). There were 12 complications (11%) in the 114 levels in Group I and seven complications (39%) in the 18 levels in Group II (p = 0.03). The most common complication was cement extrusion from the anterior VB that did not involve the venous system. No patient required an open surgical procedure to remove extruded cement.
Conclusions. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty appear to be safe and effective in the setting of severe back pain caused by VB fracture that is unresponsive to other therapies, even in the presence of relative contraindications to the procedures.
Daryl R. Fourney, Julie E. York, Zvi R. Cohen, Dima Suki, Laurence D. Rhines and Ziya L. Gokaslan
Object. The treatment of atlantoaxial spinal metastases is complicated by the region's unique biomechanical and anatomical characteristics. Patients most frequently present with pain secondary to instability; neurological deficits are rare. Recently, some authors have performed anterior approaches (transoral or extraoral) for resection of upper cervical metastases. The authors review their experience with a surgical strategy that emphasizes posterior stabilization of the spine and avoidance of poorly tolerated external orthoses such as the rigid cervical collar or halo vest.
Methods. The authors performed a retrospective review of 19 consecutively treated patients with C-1 or C-2 metastases who underwent surgery at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1994 and 2001.
Visual analog pain scores were reduced at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.005, Wilcoxon signed-rank test); however, evaluation of pain at 6 months and 1 year was limited by the remaining number of surviving patients. Analgesic medication consumption was unchanged. There were no cases of neurological decline or sudden death secondary to residual or recurrent atlantoaxial disease during the follow-up period. One patient underwent revision of hardware at 11 months. The mean follow-up period was 8 months (range 1–32 months). Median survival determined by Kaplan—Meier analysis was 6.1 months (95% confidence interval 2.99–9.21).
Conclusions. Occipitocervical stabilization provided durable pain relief and preservation of ambulatory status over the remaining life span of patients. Because of the palliative goals of surgery, the authors have not found an indication for anterior-approach tumor resection in these patients. Successful stabilization obviates the need for an external orthosis.
Case report and description of operative technique
Laurence D. Rhines, Daryl R. Fourney, Abdolreza Siadati, Ian Suk and Ziya L. Gokaslan
✓ Chordomas are locally aggressive neoplasms with an extremely high propensity to recur locally following resection, despite adjuvant therapy. This biological behavior has led most authors to conclude that en bloc resection provides the best chance for the patient's prolonged disease-free survival and possible cure.
The authors present a case of an extensive upper cervical chordoma treated by en bloc resection, reconstruction, and long-segment stabilization. Total spondylectomy of C2–4 with sacrifice of the right C2–4 nerve roots and a segment of the right vertebral artery was performed. The inherent anatomical complexities of en bloc resection in the upper cervical spine are discussed. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first report of an en bloc resection for multilevel cervical chordoma.